Electroporation is the most efficient, non-viral gene delivery method for introducing DNA, RNA, mRNA, RNPs, proteins, and other molecules into a wide variety of cells, especially difficult-to-transfect cells, like primary and stem cells. By using accurately pulsed electric currents to induce transient pores in the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane extracellular genetic material can pass through and assimilate the target cells’ DNA. With careful choice of appropriate pulse time, waveform, and voltage, cell membrane disturbance is minimized, target cell viability is enhanced, and reproducible transfection efficiencies are achieved.

Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation System

The Gene Pulser Xcell is a flexible, modular electroporation system for transfecting every cell type from primary, suspension, and difficult-to-transfect cells, including T cells, to bacteria and fungi. The electroporation system uses exponential or square-wave pulses to deliver the pulses optimal for your cell type, and it is built upon the main unit. The CE module contains the low-voltage capacitors required for mammalian cells and plant protoplasts. The PC module contains the resistors needed for high-voltage electroporation. For the highest efficiency while maintaining cell viability, use preset protocols for most common cell types and difficult-to-transfect cells or manually adjust parameters as needed for the best optimized conditions for your cell type.

  Gene Pulser Xcell Total System
Gene Pulser Xcell Total
Gene Pulser Xcell Eukaryotic System
Gene Pulser Xcell Eukaryotic
Gene Pulser Xcell Microbial System
Gene Pulser Xcell Microbial
Full capacity to electroporate both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells with either exponential-decay or square-wave pulses to optimize conditions that will provide the best efficiency and viability for different cell types.
Delivers low-voltage and high capacitance square-wave pulses to sensitive cells with specified pulse durations and pulse numbers into low-resistance media helping to increase efficiency and viability.
Delivers high-voltage pulses with the ability to control resistance to small volume samples with high resistance, therefore reducing the time constant of an exponential-decay pulse.
Main Unit
PC Module  
CE Module  
Voltage (V)
Capacitance (µF)
10-3,000 V
10-3,275 µF
10-3,000 V
25-3,275 µF
200-3,000 V
10, 25, 50 µF
Cell Types Eukaryotic and prokaryotic Eukaryotic, including mammalian cells and plant protoplasts Prokaryotic, including bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms
Waveform Exponential-decay and square-wave Exponential-decay and square-wave Exponential-decay and square-wave

Bacterial Transformation with the MicroPulser Electroporator

MicroPulser Electroporator

Efficient, Reproducible, and Easy

Electroporation is perfect for routine bacterial transformation. The MicroPulser Electroporator enables simple and reproducible transformation of E. coli, yeast, and other microorganisms. Preset programs make it easy to precisely deliver optimal parameters established by Bio-Rad and verified in the literature over the years. Voltage and pulse time also can be set manually, enabling optimization of transformation conditions.

Learn More about the MicroPulser Electroporator

Electroporation Cuvettes

Electroporation Cuvettes

High-quality, sterile electroporation cuvettes provide consistent pulse delivery to your valuable samples, ensuring reproducible results. Cuvettes are available in three different gap widths (0.4, 0.2, and 0.1 cm) for optimal field strength delivery to a wide range of cell types. They are compatible with the Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation Systems, the MicroPulser Electroporator, and other cuvette-based electroporation systems.

Select Electroporation Cuvettes
Electroporation Cuvette Selection Guide
0.4 cm gap cuvettes
  • Wider gap for low field strength
  • For mammalian cells, including primary and stem cells, and other eukaryotic cells including plant protoplasts
0.2 cm gap cuvettes
  • Narrow gap for high field strength
  • For bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells including primary and stem cells
0.1 cm gap cuvettes
  • Narrowest gap and shallow bottom for small sample volumes (40–80 μl) and very high field strength
  • For bacteria and yeast

Electroporation Cuvette Features

  • Guaranteed Efficiency

    Electroporation efficiency is maximized with precision cuvettes for your Gene Pulser and MicroPulser electroporators

  • Ensured Sterility

    Each cuvette is fitted with a snug cap, wrapped, and sterilized by gamma irradiation

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  • Color-Coded Caps

    Colored caps enable easy identification of different cuvette sizes

  • Inspected and Tested

    Cuvettes are inspected at several points in the manufacturing and tested in actual electroporation experiments to guarantee performance

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  • Sturdy Construction

    Durable polycarbonate is used to withstand pulses of very high voltage

  • Smooth Electrode Surface

    The aluminum electrode plates are subjected to an 11-step etching and cleaning process for uniform pulse delivery to the entire sample

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  • Precise Gap Widths

    Cuvettes are manufactured to very narrow gap tolerances to ensure reproducibility among experiments

  • Easy Identification

    Individual color-coded pouches distinguish 3 different cuvette gap widths to ensure proper use

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  • Thorough Cleanliness

    Cuvette cleanliness is maximized by assembly in a clean-room environment and repeated washing in 2 different solvents for contaminant-free electroporation

  • Consistent Chamber Shape

    Seamless plastic molding eliminates leaking and keeps the aluminum plates parallel for uniform sample treatment and safety

Electroporation Buffer

MicroPulser Electroporator

Electroporation is the best method for transfecting difficult cell types, and an optimized electroporation buffer formulation can dramatically increase transfection efficiency.

Gene Pulser Electroporation Buffer is a universal buffer compatible with most electroporation systems and every experimental parameter for mammalian cells. The buffer is designed to minimize cell death while ensuring highly efficient delivery of nucleic acids.

Learn more about the Gene Pulser Electroporation Buffer

Transfection Resources

Electroporation Protocols

Protocol Finder

The Transfection Protocol Online Library contains a series of electroporation protocols for mammalian, plant, and microorganism electroporation obtained from the literature, developed by Bio-Rad scientists, or submitted by scientists like you. The library serves as a starting point to use immediately or to optimize your conditions further. It is especially helpful for difficult-to-transfect cells and for finding the best protocol, with the most optimal conditions, to allow the highest transfection efficiency while maintaining cell viability.


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