Fluorescent Western Blotting

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Overview

Fluorescent western blotting is a method that is increasing in popularity because it addresses the need for accurate, quantitative determination of protein expression. The basic principle of the technique is that the level of fluorescence emitted by a fluorophore conjugated to the detection antibody is directly related to the level of protein expression. Unlike traditional western blotting detection methods, fluorescence is not subject to enzyme kinetics; making quantitation more reproducible. Furthermore, method development is simplified due to the linearity of the reaction. An additional benefit of the chemistry is blots can be cataloged for extended periods of time when stored properly.

By combining different antibody species with fluorophores of varying wavelengths, you can use fluorescent western blotting to create multiplex experiments. This will save you time and sample and allow you to answer more complex questions. Multiplexing also allows you to perform accurate analysis when there are only small shifts in molecular weight, e.g., post-translational modifications. By optimizing your experiments to include fluorescent multiplexing, you can avoid the errors commonly associated with stripping, reprobing, and cutting blots and ensure you are publishing quantifiable, reproducible results.

Advantages of Fluorescent
Western Blotting

Key benefits to using this technique include:

  • More data
  • Easier multiplexing
  • Less sample used
  • Fewer reagents used
  • No stripping, reprobing,
    or blot cutting
  • Easier method development
Chemiluminescence

Chemiluminescence

1 Color

Traditional Fluorescence

Traditional Fluorescence

2 Colors

Bio-Rad Fluorescence

Bio-Rad Fluorescence

3 Colors + Total Protein Normalization


Why should you be concerned about stripping, reprobing, and cutting blots?

Reproducibility, poor data quality, and unpublishable results are just some reasons. Watch this video to learn why these traditional techniques are not optimal and how fluorescence western blotting and total protein normalization can help.

Fluorescent Western Blotting

The Fluorescent Way: Why Start Fluorescent Western Blotting Now?

Recent advances in digital imaging technology and fluorescent western blotting reagents have resulted in better sensitivity and data quality.

Read Full Article

The V3 Western Workflow

The V3 Western Workflow System allows you to quickly check electrophoresis and blot transfer quality and obtain truly quantitative western blotting results, updating traditional blotting techniques with innovative tools.

Visualize. Verify. Validate.

Learn More  Request a Demo

How to Do Fluorescent Westerns?

Fluorescent western blotting doesn't have to be difficult. Here are a few resources to get you started.

Handy Tips for Fluorescent Western Blotting

Hover over each image for more information.

High background

Seeing high fluorescence background? Try specialized fluorescence blocking buffers, like those with casein. Also consider using LF-PVDF membranes.

Blown out standards

Standards too bright? Avoid using standards that contain pink bands as these fluoresce very readily. Try Precision Plus Protein All Blue or Precision Plus Protein Unstained Standards instead.

Pen and other artifacts

Don't want to see all the marks on your membrane? Mark the membrane with a pencil, not an ink pen.

Light Up Your Lab

Get a free excitation/emission reference poster to make it easier to select the right fluorophore for your next experiment.
» Request a Free Fluorophore Poster

 
PJW4ANE08O1Y [x-forwarded-proto] = [https] [cookie] = [JSESSIONID=D326189426310580755FA5447FAF3008.lsds-e1a] [x-forwarded-port] = [443] [x-forwarded-for] = [216.176.180.76, 10.232.2.92] [accept] = [*/*] [seourl] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/fluorescent-western-blotting] [x-amzn-trace-id] = [Root=1-5d83494c-bde0860f0b10d9e8a056c3cd] [x-forwarded-server] = [lsds-prod-s.br.aws-livesite.io] [x-forwarded-host] = [www.bio-rad.com] [x-query-string] = [ID=PJW4ANE08O1Y] [host] = [10.232.0.21:1776] [x-request-uri] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/fluorescent-western-blotting] [connection] = [Keep-Alive] [accept-encoding] = [gzip, deflate] [user-agent] = [rogerbot/1.2 (https://moz.com/help/guides/moz-procedures/what-is-rogerbot, rogerbot-crawler+aardwolf-production-api-01@moz.com)] AppTech/AppTechDetails pageStyleKey internet/solutions_sub applications-technologies/fluorescent-western-blotting LSR PJW4ANE08O1Y Fluorescent Western Blotting Fluorescent Western Blotting /webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/fluorescence-western-blotting-solutions-th.gif Fluorescent Western Blotting <div class="pagenav"><img src="/webroot/web/images/opt/prodnav-arrow-top.png" alt="" /> <table border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="pagenavhead"> <h3>On This Page</h3> </td> <td class="pagenavfirst"><a onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Page Nav&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Advantages of Fluorescent Western Blotting','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="#advantages">Advantages of Fluorescent Western Blotting</a></td> <td><a onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Page Nav&amp;tgp_pcp_link=The Fluorescent Way Article','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="#fluorescent-way">The Fluorescent Way Article</a></td> <td><a onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Page Nav&amp;tgp_pcp_link=V3 Western Workflow','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="#v3-workflow">V3 Western Workflow</a></td> <td class="&quot;pagenavlast"><a onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Page Nav&amp;tgp_pcp_link=How to Do Fluorescent Westerns?','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="#how-to-fluorescent-westerns">How to Do Fluorescent Westerns?</a></td> <!---<td class="pagenavlast"><a onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Page Nav&amp;tgp_pcp_link=How to Do Fluorescent Westerns?','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="#poster">Western Blotting Fluorophores &mdash; Excitation and Emission Poster</a></td>---></tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="opt-module opt-module-noborder opt-module-first"> <p>Fluorescent western blotting is a method that is increasing in popularity because it addresses the need for accurate, quantitative determination of protein expression. The basic principle of the technique is that the level of fluorescence emitted by a fluorophore conjugated to the detection antibody is directly related to the level of protein expression. Unlike traditional western blotting detection methods, fluorescence is not subject to enzyme kinetics; making quantitation more reproducible. Furthermore, method development is simplified due to the linearity of the reaction. An additional benefit of the chemistry is blots can be cataloged for extended periods of time when stored properly.</p> <p>By combining different antibody species with fluorophores of varying wavelengths, you can use fluorescent western blotting to create multiplex experiments. This will save you time and sample and allow you to answer more complex questions. Multiplexing also allows you to perform accurate analysis when there are only small shifts in molecular weight, e.g., post-translational modifications. By optimizing your experiments to include fluorescent multiplexing, you can avoid the errors commonly associated with stripping, reprobing, and cutting blots and ensure you are publishing quantifiable, reproducible results.</p> </div> <div><a name="advantages"></a></div> <div class="opt-module opt-how-to-bg"><iframe class="right" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/if8Qsv7Vx9M?version=3&amp;rel=0&amp;showinfo=0&amp;theme=light&amp;modestbranding=1&amp;fs=1;wmode=transparent" height="263" width="468" style="border: 1px solid #ccc;"></iframe> <h2 class="nextp">Advantages of Fluorescent <br />Western Blotting</h2> <p><strong>Key benefits to using this technique include:</strong></p> <ul class="list-bullets list-two-col"> <li>More data</li> <li>Easier multiplexing</li> <li>Less sample used</li> <li>Fewer reagents used</li> <li>No stripping, reprobing, <br />or blot cutting</li> <li>Easier method development</li> </ul> <div class="col-3-mod top-margin marginbttm-15"> <div class="image-with-caption"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/chemiluminescence.jpg" alt="Chemiluminescence" /> <div class="image-caption-short"> <h3>Chemiluminescence</h3> <p>1 Color</p> </div> </div> <div class="image-with-caption"><img alt="Traditional Fluorescence" src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/traditional-fluorescence.jpg" /> <div class="image-caption-short"> <h3>Traditional Fluorescence</h3> <p>2 Colors</p> </div> </div> <div class="image-with-caption"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/bio-rad-fluorescence.jpg" alt="Bio-Rad Fluorescence" /> <div class="image-caption-short"> <h3>Bio-Rad Fluorescence</h3> <p>3 Colors + Total Protein Normalization</p> </div> </div> </div> <br clear="all" /> <div class="top-margin"><iframe class="left" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Pj6HyUlSLJQ?version=3&amp;rel=0&amp;showinfo=0&amp;theme=light&amp;modestbranding=1&amp;fs=1;wmode=transparent" height="168px" width="300px" style="border: 1px solid #ccc;"></iframe> <h3 class="opt-subhead">Why should you be concerned about stripping, reprobing, and cutting blots?</h3> <p>Reproducibility, poor data quality, and unpublishable results are just some reasons. Watch this video to learn why these traditional techniques are not optimal and how fluorescence western blotting and total protein normalization can help.</p> </div> </div> <div><a name="fluorescent-way"></a></div> <div class="opt-module"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/fluorescent-way.png" alt="Fluorescent Western Blotting" class="right" /> <h2 class="nextp">The Fluorescent Way: Why Start Fluorescent Western Blotting Now?</h2> <p>Recent advances in digital imaging technology and fluorescent western blotting reagents have resulted in better sensitivity and data quality.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.bioradiations.com/the-fluorescent-way-why-start-fluorescent-western-blotting-now/" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Products Nav&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Read Full Article','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" rel="noopener noreferrer"><strong>Read Full Article</strong></a></p> </div> <!---<div class="opt-module opt-fluorescence-feature"> <h2 class="nextp">The Fluorescent Way: Why Start Fluorescent Western Blotting Now?</h2> <p>Recent advances in digital imaging technology and fluorescent western blotting reagents have resulted in better sensitivity and data quality.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.bioradiations.com/the-fluorescent-way-why-start-fluorescent-western-blotting-now/" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Products Nav&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Read Full Article','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" rel="noopener noreferrer"><strong>Read Full Article</strong></a></p> </div>---> <div><a name="v3-workflow"></a></div> <div class="opt-module wb-module-feature opt-module-noborder"> <h2 class="nextp">The V3 Western Workflow</h2> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/RWsDtTqDW_o?version=3&amp;rel=0&amp;showinfo=0&amp;theme=light&amp;modestbranding=1&amp;fs=1;wmode=transparent" height="245px" width="437px" class="right"></iframe> <p>The V3 Western Workflow System allows you to quickly check electrophoresis and blot transfer quality and obtain truly quantitative western blotting results, updating traditional blotting techniques with innovative tools.</p> <h3 class="opt-subhead30">Visualize. Verify. Validate.</h3> <ul class="list-set inline-icons"> <li><a class="no-target-style" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=V3 Feature&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Download Brochure','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6253.pdf"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/icon_pdf.gif" /></a> <a class="no-target-style" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=V3 Feature&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Download Brochure','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6253.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><strong>Download Brochure</strong></a></li> </ul> <p><a class="bttn-block linkgeneration" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=V3&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Learn more','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="/en-us/product/v3-western-workflow"><span class="bttn-orange">Learn More</span></a> &nbsp;<a class="bttn-block no-target-style" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=V3&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Request a Demo','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="https://info.bio-rad.com/ww-V3-Central-Umbrella-btwas.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><span class="bttn-green">Request a Demo</span></a></p> </div> <!---<div class="opt-module no-bttm-pddng opt-module-noborder demo-snipe"><img class="left" src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/v3-family.png" alt="V3 Western Workflow Product Family" /> <h2 class="nextp">V3 Western Workflow</h2> <p>The V3 Western Workflow streamlines the western blotting protocol, saving time and increasing accuracy and reliability by incorporating innovative tools throughout the process:</p> <ul class="list-float"> <li>Stain-free gel and blot imaging for total protein detection</li> <li>Rapid transfer with the Trans-Blot Turbo System</li> <li>High sensitivity and image resolution with the ChemiDoc MP and ChemiDoc Imaging Systems</li> </ul> <ul class="list-set inline-icons"> <li><a onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=V3&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Video','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="/en-us/product/v3-western-workflow?ID=M08HIB15"><img src="/webroot/web/images/icons/icons-product-detail.png" alt="" class="left inline-icons-details" /></a> <a href="/en-us/product/v3-western-workflow?ID=M08HIB15"><strong>Product Details</strong></a></li> <li><a class="no-target-style" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Reagent Selector&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Request Demo','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="https://info.bio-rad.com/LSGPQDWWREVV3WorkflowGBLDemoRequest2017_LP1.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/icon-demo.gif" alt="" class="left" /></a> <a class="no-target-style" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Reagent Selector&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Request Demo','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="https://info.bio-rad.com/ww-ChemiDocMP-demo.html?fwbrs" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><strong>Request a Demo</strong></a></li> <li><a class="no-target-style" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Reagent Selector&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Download Brochure','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6427.pdf"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/icon_pdf.gif" class="left inline-icons-pdf" /></a> <a class="no-target-style" onmousedown="dcsMultiTrack('DCS.dcsqry','?tgp_pcp_link_group=Reagent Selector&amp;tgp_pcp_link=Download Brochure','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link_group','','DCSext.tgp_pcp_link','','WT.dl','99999');" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6873.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><strong>Download Brochure</strong></a></li> </ul> </div>---> <div><a name="how-to-fluorescent-westerns"></a></div> <div class="opt-module optresources-bg"> <h2 class="nextp">How to Do Fluorescent Westerns?</h2> <p>Fluorescent western blotting doesn't have to be difficult. Here are a few resources to get you started.</p> <ul class="list-set list-three-col"> <li><a href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6166A.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/fluorescent-blot-detection-guide.png" border="0" alt="" /></a> <h3><a href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6166A.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Fluorescent Blot Detection Guide</a><br /><span class="filesize">(PDF 994 KB)</span></h3> <p>Fluorescent western blotting for chemiluminescence or colorimetric blot users.</p> </li> <li><a href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_2895.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/products/electrophoresis/category_feature/global/western-blot-guides-blotting-guide.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></a> <h3><a href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_2895.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Protein Blotting Guide</a><br /><span class="filesize">(PDF 7.9 MB)</span></h3> <p>Western blotting basics, troubleshooting blots, and products all in one place.</p> </li> <li><a href="http://www.bioradiations.com/fluorescent-western-blotting-helpful-tips-for-optimizing-your-protocol/" target="_blank" class="no-target-style" rel="noopener noreferrer"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/fluorescent-tips.png" border="0" alt="" /></a> <h3><a href="http://www.bioradiations.com/fluorescent-western-blotting-helpful-tips-for-optimizing-your-protocol/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Fluorescent Tips</a></h3> <p>Helpful tips to optimize your protocol and enhance your western blotting experience.</p> </li> </ul> <div class="youtube-videos top-margin"><iframe src="/webroot/web/html/lsr/global/english/solutions/fluorescent-western-blotting-videos.html" width="945" height="448"></iframe></div> <h3 class="opt-subhead topmargin-1em">Handy Tips for Fluorescent Western Blotting</h3> <p class="small">Hover over each image for more information.</p> <div id="interactiveRibbonOuter"> <div class="ribbonThird active" style="background-image: url('/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/MA17-0012_S2_GR2.jpg'); background-repeat: no-repeat;"> <div class="ribbonThirdInner"> <div class="ribbonHeader"> <div class="ribbon2"> <div class="ribbon2Center"> <h4 class="gy05">High background</h4> </div> </div> <div class="ribbon2Right"></div> </div> <div class="ribbonDesc"> <p>Seeing high fluorescence background? Try specialized fluorescence blocking buffers, like those with casein. Also consider using LF-PVDF membranes.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="ribbonThird" style="background-image: url('/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/MA17-0012_S2_GR3.jpg'); background-repeat: no-repeat;"> <div class="ribbonThirdInner"> <div class="ribbonHeader"> <div class="ribbon2"> <div class="ribbon2Center"> <h4 class="gy05">Blown out standards</h4> </div> </div> <div class="ribbon2Right"></div> </div> <div class="ribbonDesc"> <p>Standards too bright? Avoid using standards that contain pink bands as these fluoresce very readily. Try Precision Plus Protein All Blue or Precision Plus Protein Unstained Standards instead.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="ribbonThird" style="background-image: url('/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/MA17-0012_S2_GR4.jpg'); background-repeat: no-repeat;"> <div class="ribbonThirdInner"> <div class="ribbonHeader"> <div class="ribbon2"> <div class="ribbon2Center"> <h4 class="gy05">Pen and other artifacts</h4> </div> </div> <div class="ribbon2Right"></div> </div> <div class="ribbonDesc"> <p>Don't want to see all the marks on your membrane? Mark the membrane with a pencil, not an ink pen.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <img class="opt-horizdivider top-margin margin-bottom20" src="/webroot/web/images/opt/digital-pcr/horiz-gradient-divider.png" /> <a href="https://info.bio-rad.com/ww-FluoroPoster-lp1.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class=""><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/MA17-0012_S2_GR1.jpg" border="0" alt="" class="left" style="width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a> <h3>Light Up Your Lab</h3> <p>Get a free excitation/emission reference poster to make it easier to select the right fluorophore for your next experiment.<br /><a href="https://info.bio-rad.com/ww-FluoroPoster-lp1.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="new-target-image" title="Link opens in new window"><strong>&raquo; Request a Free Fluorophore Poster</strong></a></p> <script type="text/javascript">// <![CDATA[ $(document).ready(function () { // START Ribbon $( '.ribbonThird' ).hover( function() { $( '.ribbonThird:first' ).removeClass( 'active' ); $(this).addClass( 'active' ); }, function() { $(this).removeClass( 'active' ); }); // START Ribbon }); // ]]></script> <script type="text/javascript" src="/webroot/web/js/apptech-opt-conveter-min.js"></script> </div> <!---<div><a name="poster"></a></div> <div class="opt-module"> <h2 class="nextp">Western Blotting Fluorophores&mdash;Excitation and Emission Poster</h2> <img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/technologies/Fluorescent-Western-Blotting/MA17-0012_S2_GR1.jpg" class="right" /> <p>Use this poster to:</p> <ul> <li>Reference the excitation and emission spectra of commonly used fluorophores</li> <li>Choose the right fluorophores to run multiplex experiments</li> <li>Brighten up your lab</li> </ul> <p><a href="https://info.bio-rad.com/ww-FluoroPoster-lp1.html" target="_blank" class="bttn-block no-target-style" rel="noopener noreferrer"><span class="bttn-orange">Request a Free Copy</span></a></p> </div>--> Anton Ross Fluorescent Western Blotting | Bio-Rad Laboratories Learn how Fluorescent Western Blotting and total protein normalization can help with quantitative and accurate protein expression analyses. Fluorescent Western Blotting, fluorescent western blotting, fluorescent western blot, western blot protocol, Western Blotting, western blotting, Western Blot, western blot, blot 01/05/19 12:52 AM 01/04/28 01:57 PM AR,BO,BR,CA,CL,CO,CR,DO,EC,SV,GU,GT,HT,HN,JM,MX,NI,PA,PY,PE,PR,TT,US,UY,VE,AU,BD,BN,KH,CN,HK,IN,ID,JP,KR,MO,MY,FM,NP,NZ,PW,PG,PH,SG,SB,LK,TW,TH,TO,VU,AL,DZ,AI,AM,AT,AZ,BH,BE,BA,BW,BG,BF,CM,HR,CY,CZ,DK,EG,ER,EE,ET,FO,FI,FR,GF,PF,GA,GE,DE,GH,GR,GP,HU,IS,IE,IL,IT,JO,KZ,KE,XK,KW,LV,LB,LI,LT,LU,MK,MG,ML,MT,MQ,MU,MD,MS,MA,NL,NG,NO,OM,PK,PS,PL,PT,QA,RO,RU,ST,SA,SN,RS,SK,SI,ZA,ES,SE,CH,TZ,TG,TN,TR,UG,UA,AE,UK,UZ,VA,EH,YE LSR /LSR/Technologies/Fluorescent_Western_Blotting N 0
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