Foundational Research

Stages of Immunotherapy Development

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Immunotherapy has led to significant advances in our understanding and treatment of cancer. However, there is more work to be done since cancer continues to affect millions of individuals worldwide. Explore the stages of cancer immunotherapy development and discover tools that assist you with your discovery at every stage.

Foundational Research

In early discovery phases, researchers begin to develop a deeper understanding of the cancer they are investigating including generating information of the tumor microenvironment, cellular heterogeneity, and potential mechanisms through which the disease progresses. These insights allow potential therapeutic targets to be elucidated. Additional research is performed to validate potential targets, often using cellular and animal models. Some researchers may also begin to design therapeutic molecules which are further developed in later discovery phases.

Key Tools for Foundational Research

Understanding the tumor microenvironment requires analysis at the single cell level which can reveal key data about the levels of cellular heterogeneity that may be present. Bio-Rad's ddSEQ solution enables single cell isolation prior to sequencing. In addition, single cells can be isolated using the S3e Cell Sorter to provide cellular material for downstream cellular, proteomic, and genomic assays. During the discovery phase, assays typically involve large scale screening. For those performing high throughput genomic assays, the CFX Real Time PCR Detection System combined with the CFX Automation System provides a robust platform for data generation. Our new multiplex kit leverages 20 of the most biologically relevant human cytokines in research today. Explore the Bio-Plex Pro Human Immunotherapy Panel.

Companion Products to Investigate

  • Droplet Digital™ PCR (ddPCR™) Systems, Primers, Assays, and Arrays

    Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) Systems, Reagents and Assays

    • Characterize nucleic acid across cellular and animal models of cancer to identify new targets for cancer therapies with high sensitivity and precision
    • Absolute quantitation removes the need for a standard curve
    • Inhibitor tolerant allows analysis of more complex sample types
  • ddseq-single-cell-isolator

    ddSEQ Single Cell Isolator

    • Sensitive and unbiased characterization of transcriptional signatures
    • Scalable and agnostic to mammalian cell size, enabling unbiased profiling of diverse cell populations
    • Map cell trajectories, dissect transcriptional mechanics, and infer gene regulatory networks
  • qPCR

    CFX Real-Time PCR Detection System

    • Bio-Rad’s high-performance PCR workflows support gene expression assays as part of target discovery and development, and biomarker discovery
    • Real-time PCR workflows provide powerful and flexible instruments with 2–5 color multiplexing to deliver sensitive, reliable detection of both single and multiplex Real-time PCR reactions
    • Reagents optimized for your application including single cell GX, lncRNA, CNV, mutation and pathogen detection
  • Ze5™ Cell Analyzer

    ZE5 Cell Analyzer

    • Characterize the disease specific cellular universe in cell and animal models of cancer using multi-parameter cell analysis
    • Monitor up to 30 parameters simultaneously, using up to 5 lasers and identify cell subtypes faster with more precision
    • Fast acquisition rate allows rare or transient cell types to be analyzed
    • Small particle detection to analyze biomarkers in exosomes, a marker rich compartment
  • S3e Cell Sorter

    S3e Cell Sorter

    • Sort and analyze cells at your bench to support target discovery/validation
    • Up to 3 lasers provide the flexibility needed to distinguish & sort subtly different cell populations
    • Cells are sorted quickly and gently while maintaining sensitivity and precision, which supports sorting of fragile cell types for downstream assays
  • Gene Pulser Xcell™ Electroporation Systems

    Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation Systems

    • Transfer genetic material via electroporation as part of cell or animal model development
    • Easy to use with a library of electroporation protocols for every cell type including primary, immortal, and bacterial cells
    • Open system to allow protocol optimization and ensure maximum transfection efficiencies
  • Gene Pulser Xcell™ Electroporation Systems

    Helios Gene Gun

    • Transfer genetic material via gene gun particle delivery into mammalian cells for cell/animal model or cell therapy development
    • Pressure and particle size can be optimized for your specific delivery/cell type need
    • No need for carrier DNA, so no extraneous proteins or genes are delivered
  • ZOE™ Fluorescent Cell Imager

    ZOE Fluorescent Cell Imager

    • Monitor cells at your bench prior to, during and after assays used in early discovery
    • Touch-screen imaging software to view cells, capture images, and create multichannel merges
    • Flexible operation with brightfield and three fluorescence channels enables routine and more sophisticated imaging applications
  • TC20™ Automated Cell Counter

    TC20 Automated Cell Counter

    • Quantify cells prior to, during and after cell based assays during early discovery to ensure reproducibility
    • Monitor cell health and accurately count cells in less than 30 seconds in one simple step without manual counting
  • Bio-Plex System

    Bio-Plex Multiplex Immunoassay System

    • Interrogate and quantify multiple proteins biomarkers in a single assay with a high degree of sensitivity using xMAP technology
    • Generate data for targets of interest using off-the-shelf or custom assay solutions
    • Conserve precious samples with Bio-Plex assays that require only ~12.5µl of input sample per assay
  • V3 Western Workflow

    V3 Western Workflow

    • A five-step Western Blotting workflow that simplifies protein normalization and quantitation providing faster results for early discovery
    • The workflow uses "Total Protein Normalization" and gives results in hours vs days for traditional western workflows
    • Analyze expression of multiple protein targets with multiplex imaging - chemiluminescence, fluorescence, or colorimetric
  • Antibodies


    • Primary and secondary antibodies for early discovery
    • Available for specific assay formats including Flow, ELISA, IHC/ICC, Western Blot, co-crystallization and affinity chromatography
    • For a range of research focuses - Immunology, Cancer, Stem cells, Cell biology
  • HuCAL Custom Monoclonal Antibodies

    HuCAL Custom Monoclonal Antibodies

    • Custom antibody development and production within 8 weeks
    • Designed for specific assay formats including Flow, ELISA, IHC/ICC, Western Blot, co-crystallization and affinity chromatography
    • Highly specific, high affinity, recombinant monoclonal antibody with long term availability
  • qPCR

    CFX Real-Time PCR Systems

    • Utilized for protein stability and protein characterization work
  • NGC and Fraction Collector

    NGC Chromatography System

    • Easy to use system that shortens the chromatography learning curve
    • Software that eases the burden of method development
    • Supports purification of biological drugs and key reagents for assays
  • Chromatography Resins & Columns

    Chromatography Resins & Columns

    • Bio-Rad resins can be used for lab scale and scale up purifications
    • Resins with unique chemistries that offer better purification