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|Profile Immune Responses||Host-Cell-Virus Protein Interactions||Antibodies to Characterize Immune Response|
Understanding viral host-pathogen interaction and host immune responses are critical in viral disease diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine research. COVID-19 has a wide clinical spectrum of disease and it is paramount to understand the differences that occur in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. While some individuals are asymptomatic, others present with severe disease that appears to be mediated by an exacerbated inflammatory response and cytokine storms. To improve clinical outcomes and prevent death, host responses to coronavirus disease need to be better understood.
To aid coronavirus immune response research, Bio-Rad provides multiple solutions from cytokine profiling and immunophenotyping through to antibody solutions, and protein profiling.
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Profile Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Virus and COVID-19 Disease
A promising route to characterize the diverse immune response to coronavirus infection across populations — from asymptomatic carriers to severe disease — is by comprehensive immunophenotyping. Immunophenotypes vary greatly between individuals and may provide clues as to the type of immune response that confers protection and help inform vaccine development. Flow cytometry with labeled antibodies is the unrivaled technique for immunophenotyping patient samples.
Flow Cytometry Analysis for COVID-19 Research and Vaccine Development
Profile virus- and vaccine-induced immune responses with the ZE5 Cell Analyzer.
- High-parametric immunophenotyping
- Rapid discovery of neutralizing antibodies
- Detection of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytokine receptors
Grifoni A et al. Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals. Cell 2020 May 14. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.015
Wang F et al. Characteristics of Peripheral Lymphocyte Subset Alteration in COVID-19 Pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2020;221(11):1762‐1769. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa150
Cossarizza A et al. SARS-CoV-2, the Virus that Causes COVID-19: Cytometry and the New Challenge for Global Health. Cytometry A. 2020;97(4):340‐343. PMID: 32187834; PMCID: PMC7162395, DOI: 10.1002/cyto.a.24002Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals Grifoni A et al. Cell 2020 May 14
Characteristics of Peripheral Lymphocyte Subset Alteration in COVID-19 Pneumonia Wang F et al. J Infect Dis. 2020;221(11):1762‐1769
SARS-CoV-2, the Virus that Causes COVID-19: Cytometry and the New Challenge for Global Health Cossarizza A et al. Cytometry A. 2020;97(4):340‐343
Antibodies to Study the Immune Response and Inflammation
In severe COVID-19 disease, a dysfunctional immune response occurs with an exacerbated pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response.
Bio-Rad Antibodies provide complete solutions to profile immune responses to COVID-19 infection with thousands of highly-cited antibodies against targets available in Bio-Rad’s immunology and inflammation portfolio and the ability to provide custom recombinant monoclonal antibody generation in just 8 weeks.
- Characterize the innate immune response to viral infection and investigate the role of innate immune response in disease severity with antibodies that recognize toll-like receptors, pattern recognition receptors and innate immune cell markers
- Study the adaptive immune response using markers for T cells and B cells, and the inflammatory response with antibodies against cytokines and chemokines
Understanding cytokine and chemokine profiles can assist in the identification of biomarkers of severe COVID-19 disease and provide insight into the immune response between different populations. The Bio-Plex Multiplex Immunoassay System enables the quantification of the production of cytokines and chemokines from serum or other samples. A recent publication in The Lancet (Huang C et al. 2020) utilized this system to describe the clinical features of patients infected with COVID-19.
Bio-Plex Pro Human Serology Assays
With COVID-19 having variable effects on different individuals, knowing the true infection rates in populations can be skewed, with a significant percentage of asymptomatic individuals or those with mild symptoms not being counted. Simultaneous antibody response profiling against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid, receptor-binding domain, spike 1, and spike 2 viral proteins can be useful in seroprevalence studies, and to understand the overall immune response to natural infection. Get qualitative results for all of these four proteins in one well with a fast multiplex immunoassay that only requires ~5 µl of sample. It is also a useful tool for institutions developing vaccines to determine efficacy from preclinical through to clinical trials.
- Determine population infection rates through seroprevalence studies
- Monitor the antibody response over time to understand the longevity of humoral immunity against COVID-19
Fenwick C et al. Changes in SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses Impact the Estimates of Infections in Population-Based Seroprevalence Studies. medRxiv 2020.07.14.20153536; DOI: 10.1101/2020.07.14.20153536
Trivedi SU, Miao C, Sanchez JE, et al. Development and Evaluation of a Multiplexed Immunoassay for Simultaneous Detection of Serum IgG Antibodies to Six Human Coronaviruses. Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 4;9(1):1390. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-37747-5
Other Bio-Plex Immunoassays
Assays for over 450 biologically relevant targets are available as ready-to-use premixed multiplex panels and singleplex sets, or in custom-mixed panels. Bio-Plex beads and coupling kit enable you to develop new assays for novel targets.
Host-Cell-Virus Protein Interactions
Identifying key interactions that are essential for SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication will help determine factors essential for SARS-CoV-2 survival and aid in the identification of effective antiviral drugs. Electrophoresis and blotting are preeminent tools for characterization of viral interactions with host proteins, such as cell receptors mediating viral entry and replication. Our complete workflow solution for protein detection and quantitation features proprietary stain-free protein gels and imaging systems, which can provide data in as little as 30 minutes.
- Stain-free and fluorescent gel and blot imaging
- Validated primary western antibodies
- Fluorescent secondary western antibodies
Viral Protein Profiling Publications
Ou X et al. Characterization of Spike Glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on Virus Entry and Its Immune Cross-Reactivity with SARS-CoV. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):1620. PMCID: PMC7100515, PMID: 32221306, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-15562-9
Tai W et al. Characterization of the Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) of 2019 Novel Coronavirus: Implication for Development of RBD Protein as a Viral Attachment Inhibitor and Vaccine. Cell Mol Immunol. 2020;1‐8. PMCID: PMC7091888, PMID: 32203189, DOI: 10.1038/s41423-020-0400-4
Lu L et al. Immunological Characterization of the Spike Protein of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42(4):1570‐1576. PMCID: PMC387621, PMID: 15071006, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.42.4.1570-1576.2004
Antibodies to Characterize Immune Response
The detection of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies appears to be a sensitive approach to characterize the immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Bio-Rad offers a wide selection of anti-human IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies in a variety of formats including full-length antibodies, Fab fragments, purified, cross-adsorbed, and serum.
Rapid Custom Antibody Generation with HuCAL® Technology
Overcome challenges with generating reliable, custom antibodies for developing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic tests. Get highly specialized antibodies for coronavirus research and diagnostic testing with custom HuCAL recombinant antibody generation services from Bio-Rad:
- Fab antibodies against your target antigens in as little as 8 weeks
- Conversion to fully human IgG and IgM serological control antibodies
- Well-characterized, reproduced indefinitely
- Does not rely on animal immunization methods