Clathrin-coated vesicle cycle
Transport vesicles are classified according to the components of the protein coat that
surrounds them during their genesis and early life. One of the most common and probably
best-characterized classes of coated vesicle is that comprising three-layered
Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). CCVs are
so-called because the main component of the coat is complex Clathrin, which forms a polymeric mechanical scaffold on the vesicle
surface. The inner, membrane layer with its embedded cargo is linked to the outer,
Clathrin layer by a middle layer that consists
of various clathrin-adaptor molecules and other proteins that have accessory/regulatory
roles in CCV assembly. The classical key components of absolute majority cargos
Clathrin-dependent endocytosis are AP complex 2, Eps15,
AP180, Epsin 1, HIP1/
HIP12 and others , , .
After the Clathrin lattice is formed,
dynamins (e.g., Dynamin-2), endophilin
(e.g., Endophilin B1), epsins and
amphiphysin (e.g., BIN1 (Amphiphysin II)) are involved in
membrane invagination and Clathrin
rearrangements. The plus-end motor Myosin I pulls the Dynamin-2
ring in the direction of the cell surface, while the minus-end motor
Myosin VI pulls the coated bud into the
cytosol. The resulting strain could then sever the constricted stalk beneath the dynamin
Next phase is a fusion of coated-pit-derived primary endocytic vesicles with sorting
endosomes. It is regulated by member RAS oncogene family Rab-5A, EEA1 , ,  and Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor
attachment protein receptors (SNARE) , .
The maturation of sorting endosomes to late endosomes is realized with participation
member RAS oncogene family Rab-7 via
unknown mechanism , .
Late endosomes may participate in fusion to other late endosomes or lysosome via
SNARE-mediated mechanism. Combinatorial SNARE complexes with VAMP7 or VAMP8 define these different late endocytic fusion events, accordingly
, , .
In addition, Rab-7 is directly
involved in the aggregation and fusion of late endocytic structures/lysosomes , .
Then, cargo may be delivered to the Golgi from late endosomes with participation RAS
oncogene family Rab-9 , , . In addition, proteins from endoplasmic reticulum may
be translocated to the COPII-dependent
Modified in endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi cargo may be delivered from the Golgi
back to the cell surface, possibly with participation Rab-8/ Optineurin/ Myosin VI pathway , ,  and/or coat protein complex termed Coatomer , , .
Moreover, cargo may be delivered to the cell surface via shot pathway from endosomes
via different recycling endosomes . It is realized mainly via
Rab-4 and/or Rab-11A-dependent mechanisms , , .
It is shown, that recycling endosomes (endocytic recycling) to Golgi traffic may be realized via different
SNARE complexes , , .
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