Glutathione can be found in the cell in oxidized (Glutathione
disulfide) and reduced (Glutathione) form.
Reduced glutathione can be either directly formed from Glutathione
disulfide as the result of activity of Glutathione reductase
(GSHR) , , or from
conjugation of L-Cysteinyl-glycine with
(L)-Glutamic acid catalyzed by Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase
1 precursor (GGT1) or by Gamma-glutamyltransferase light
chain 2 (GGTL3) .
L-Cysteinyl-glycine is formed as a result of glutathione
conjugation to the L-Amino acid moiety catalyzed by
GGT1 and GGTL3 .
This reaction results in formation of Gamma-(L)-glutamyl-aminoacid
which is converted by Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase
(GCTG) , ,  to
the 5-Oxo-(L)-proline and L-Amino
acid. 5-Oxo-(L)-proline is then reduced to
(L)-Glutamic acid by 5-Oxoprolinase
(OPLA) , , ,
(L)-Glutamic acid also produced in the
Glutathione degradation during the
R-S-Alanylglycine formation step.
5-Oxo-(L)-proline and (L)-Cysteine
are produced as the result of
Gamma-(L)-glutamyl-(L)-cysteine cleavage catalyzed by
Gamma-(L)-glutamyl-(L)-cysteine itself is synthesized by
Glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCL cat) from
(L)-Glutamic acid and from (L)-Cysteine
, . Glutathione synthetase
subsequent conjugation of
Gamma-(L)-glutamyl-(L)-cysteine and Glycine
to form Glutathione , . Glycine is supplied from
L-Cysteinyl-glycine degradation to Glycine
and to (L)-Cysteine, as well as from the
R-S-Alanylglycine degradation step.
Glutathione (reduced) reacts with various substrates
(RX). Those reactions are carried out by a set of enzymes:
Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1), Glutathione
S-transferase A2 (GSTA2), Glutathione S-transferase A3
(GSTA3), Glutathione S-transferase A4
(GSTA4), Glutathione S-transferase A5
(GSTA5) , , , , , , Glutathione S-transferase M1
(GSTM1), Glutathione S-transferase M2
(GSTM2) , , Glutathione
S-transferase M3 (GSTM3), Glutathione S-transferase M4
(GSTM4), glutathione S-transferase M5
(GSTM5) , , , , , , Glutathione transferase zeta 1
(maleylacetoacetate isomerase) (MAAI) , , Glutathione transferase omega-1 (GSTO1),
Glutathione transferase omega-2 (GSTO2) , , Glutathione S-transferase theta-1 (GSTT1),
Glutathione S-transferase theta-2 (GSTT2) , , Glutathione S-transferase kappa 1 (GSTK1)
, , Glutathione S-transferase pi
1 (GSTP1) , ,
Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST), Microsomal
glutathione S-transferase 2 (MGST2), and Microsomal
glutathione S-transferase 3 (MGST3) , . These reactions produce R-S-Glutathione
(glutathione conjugated to a moiety) products. Subsequently
R-S-Glutathione lose their (L)-Glutamic acid
moieties in reactions catalyzed by GGT1 and
GGTL3  to produce
R-S-Alanylglycine that is further degraded to
R-S-Alanine by Aminopeptidase N
Glutathione disulfide can be formed directly from
Glutathione in the reaction catalyzed by Glutathione
peroxidase 4 (GPX4 (PHGPx)) , Glutathione
peroxidase 1 (GPX1) , ,
Glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2) , , Glutathione peroxidase 3 (plasma) (GPX3) , , Glutathione peroxidase 6 (GPX6)
, , Glutathione peroxidase 7
(GPX7), Glutathione peroxidase 5
(GPX5)  and
Glutathione disulfide can also be formed through
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