Rac2 regulation pathway
Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (Rac2) belongs
to family of small Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) and it is a critical signaling
regulator in mammalian cells. Expression of Rac2 is
restricted to cells of hematopoietic origin. It plays critical roles in a wide variety of
primary hematopoietic cells, including the regulation of adhesion, migration, oxidase
activity, and gene expression , , , , .
Main transcriptional activators of Rac2 promoter are Sp1
and Sp3 transcription factors (SP1 and
SP3) . Activation of Rac proteins is
mediated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), main GEFs for
Rac2 are T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1
(TIAM1) , Phosphatidylinositol
3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent RAC exchanger 1 (PREX1) ,  and Vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor
(VAV-1)  which is most efficient in inducing
oxidase activity of Rac2 .
Rac2 is isoprenylated at its C-terminus by
Geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I), such
modification may influence on Rac2 membrane transport from
cytosol , .
Rac2 activity is inhibited by GTPase-activating proteins
(GAPs), known GAPs for Rac2 are Breakpoint cluster region
(BCR), Active BCR-related gene
(ABR) ,  and Rac GTPase
activating protein 1 (RacGAP1) , .
Activated Rac2 interacts with several effectors which
promote activation of important cellular pathways. It was shown that
Rac2 can bind and activate Phosphoinositide-3-kinase,
regulatory subunit 1 (PI3K reg class IA (p85)) . Also, Rac2 stimulates Nitric oxide
(NO) production by interacting with Nitric oxide synthase 2A
(iNos) , . In addition,
Rac2 promotes Phospholipase C, beta 2
(PLC-beta 2) activation and 1,2-diacyl-glycerol
(DAG) production .
Important effector of Rac2 is p21 protein
(Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). Activated by
Rac2, it stimulates activity of NADPH oxidase subunits
NADPH oxidase is a multisubunit complex. It comprises of the Cytochrome
b-558, which is a heterodimer composed of a large Cytochrome b-245, beta
polypeptide (gp91-phox) and a small Cytochrome b-245, alpha
polypeptide (p22-phox) subunit. Oxidase activation is
controlled by the recruitment of cytosolic regulatory proteins to the
Cytochrome b-558, including the Neutrophil cytosolic factors
1 and 2 (p47-phox and p67-phox)
. Rac2 is a critical regulator of NADPH
oxidase activity and assembly in phagocytic cells , , . Ezrin (VIL2(ezrin)) and Radixin
(RDX (radixin)) bind to Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI)
alpha (RhoGDI alpha) and remove
it from binding with Rac2 in cytosol thus promoting
Rac2 binding to p67-phox and
translocation to plasma membrane , , , . Rac2 also binds to NADPH oxidase activator
1 (NOXA1) which stimulates activity of
p47-phox and p67-phox bind to
Cytochrome b-558 subunits and thus promote NADPH oxidase
activation, Superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production and
initiation of oxidative stress , .
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