Osteopontin signaling in osteoclasts
Osteopontin is an RGD-containing bone matrix protein which plays a key role in osteoclast activation and function.
Osteopontin binds through its alpha-V/beta-3 integrin receptor on the osteoclast plasma membrame and provides osteoclasts attachment to bone surface . Also it can bind to CD44 surface receptor. CD44 is implicated in chemotaxis mediated by Osteopontin , .
In addition, Osteopontin plays a role in regulating bone matrix stability by preventing Hydroxyapatite crystal growth and inhibiting tooth mineralization , .
In osteoclasts, osteopontin acts through alpha-V/beta-3 integrin. Activated alpha-V/beta-3 integrin binds to V-src sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (c-Src), which, subsequently, activates Syk and VAV-3 which leads to RhoA activation , . RhoA binds to PIP5KI and stimulates production of PtdIns(4,5)P2 . PtdIns(4,5)P2 binds to DBS and, thus, promotes CDC42 activation . CDC42 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 binds to WASP and promotes its association with Arp2/3 and Actin cytoskeletal. It leads to the formation of actin ring and activation of bone resorption , .
Osteopontin-stimulated RhoA also activates phosphoinositide-3-kinase, probably via binding to FAK1 and FAK1 activation of Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, PI3K reg class IA (p85-alpha) , . In addition, Osteopontin-activated c-Src promotes PI3K reg class IA (p85-alpha) activation , . It recruits PI3K cat class IA (p110-alpha) and stimulates synthesis of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 . PtdIns(3,4)P2 , PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 (produced by the activated PIP5KI) associate with Gelsolin. This event promotes formation of the podosome, followed by uncapping the actin barbed ends, actin filament elongation and, finally, osteoclast adhesion and migration to the bone surface , , , .
Osteopontin-activated c-Src induces phosphorylation of Pyk2(FAK2), which associates with p130CAS. p130CAS binds to Gelsolin and promotes podosome formation and osteoclast activation , .
In addition, Osteopontin induces RhoA-dependent ROCK2 activation, which leads to ROCK2-mediated phosphorylation of CD44 and MSN (moesin) and surface expression of CD44. It also promotes CD44 association with VIL2 (ezrin) and MSN (moesin) and leads to actin cytoskeleton reorganization, thus increasing osteoclast motility and bone resorption , .
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