Chromosome condensation in prometaphase
The two critical steps in cell reproduction are to duplicate the DNA content of
chromosomes and to segregate them into two daughter cells. The linkage between duplicated
chromosomes is established during S phase (cohesion), it persists during their dramatic
structural changes in prometaphase (condensation), and is finally dissolved at the
metaphase-anaphase transition (separation) .
Chromosome condensation is a highly ordered process in which the two sister chromatids
are sorted out and compacted without losing linkage between them. Condensin
complex is one of the most abundant components of mitotic chromosome
condensation distributed throughout the chromosome arms. The complex consists of two
structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits and three non-SMC subunits. SMC
subunits are chromosome-associated protein C (CAP-C) and
chromosome-associated protein E. Non-SMC subunits are
Chromosome-associated protein D2 or D3
(CAP-D2/D3), Chromosome-associated protein G or G2
Chromosome-associated protein H or H2
Condensin complex is stimulated by
A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP8)  and Cyclin-dependent
kinase 1 (CDK1) phosphorylation. Phosphorylated by
Cdk1/Cyclin B, Condensin
complex gains the ability to introduce positive supercoils into DNA in the
presence of ATP and Topoisomerase I (TOP I) , .
In addition, Condensin complex also converts nicked
circular DNA into a positively knotted form in the presence of ATP and Topoisomerase II
(TOP II) .
Phosphorylated at Ser10, Histone H3 takes part in
chromosome condensation. Serine/threonine kinase 6
Serine/threonine kinase 12
(Aurora-B) bind the Histone
H3 N-terminal tail, and both phosphorylate Ser 10. The two kinases have a
mutually exclusive localization: while
Aurora-A is present in the
centrosomes, Aurora-B co-localizes with the phosphorylated
form of Histone H3 . Besides,
CDK1 phosphorylates Histone H1
and Histon H3 .
Condensin complex is colocalized with phosphorylated
Histone H3 during the early stage of themitotic chromosome
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