Androstenedione and testosterone biosynthesis and metabolism
Androstenedione is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced
as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen
Testosterone and the estrogens
Estrone and Estradiol.
Androstenedione originates either from the conversion of
Dehydroepiandrosterone or from
17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone. These two metabolites have the
common precursor - 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone and they are
produced as results of different transformations. The first one - formation of
Dehydroepiandrosterone catalyzed by Cytochrome P450, family
17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP17) , , . And the second reaction is mediated by
Hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1
(HSD3B1) , , and
hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 2
(HSD3B2) , , ,  with
17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone as a product.
17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone is a product of oxidative
metabolism of Cholesterol.
Dehydroepiandrosterone comes into subsequent oxidative
transformation with production of
16Alpha-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone. This oxidation is
catalyzed by Cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 7
(CYP3A7) , ,  and Cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4
(CYP3A4) , , . Oxidative metabolite of this reaction as well as
Dehydroepiandrosterone can be further sulfated by steroid
sulfatase (microsomal), isozyme S (STS) , , .
can be transformed into other compounds with hormonal activity,
Androstendiol and Androstendiol
sulfate, respectively. These two reactions are catalyzed by Hydroxysteroid
(17-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17B1) , , Hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 2
(HSD17B2) , , , and Hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 7
(HSD17B7) , , .
Androstenedione are further converted to
Testosterone. Formation of
Testosterone from Androstendiol
is catalyzed by HSD3B1 , 
and HSD3B2 , , , whereas Hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 3
HSD17B2 and HSD17B1 catalyze
formation of testosterone from Androstenedione , , , , , , , , , .
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