Reference genes are used in relative gene expression analysis to normalize for variation in the amount of input messenger RNA (mRNA) between samples. For accurate quantitation, it is important to use one or more reference genes that are shown not to change expression as a result of the experimental treatment or condition. To aid in this, we have suggested a set of commonly used reference genes that can be used individually, easily screened using our pre-plated 96-well and 384-well reference panels, or added to custom designed plates.
View Reference Gene Assays
View Reference Gene Assay Panels
Control assays are designed to aid in assessing the key experimental factors that may be impacting your real-time PCR results.
DNA Contamination Control Assay
The PrimePCR DNA contamination control assay is designed to determine if genomic DNA (gDNA) is present in a sample at a level that may affect PCR results. The assay may also be used to compare relative levels of gDNA contamination present in different samples to determine if PCR results may be affected.
Positive PCR Control Assay
The PrimePCR positive control assay is designed to qualitatively assess the performance of a PCR reaction associated with a single sample. The assay may also be used to compare the relative performance of the PCR reactions associated with different samples.
RNA Quality Assay
The PrimePCR RNA quality assay is designed to determine if RNA integrity may adversely affect PCR results of a single sample. The assay may also be used to compare the relative RNA integrity between different samples in order to determine if PCR results may be affected.
Reverse Transcription Control Assay
The PrimePCR reverse transcription control assay is designed to qualitatively assess the performance of the reverse transcription reaction associated with a single sample. The assay may also be used to compare the relative performance of the reverse transcription reactions associated with different samples.
PrimePCR™ SYBR® Green Assay: ACTB, Human
This gene encodes one of six different actin proteins. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility structure and integrity. This actin is a major constituent of the contractile apparatus and one of the two nonmuscle cytoskeletal actins. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008] (more)
PrimePCR™ SYBR® Green Assay: Actb, Mouse
Description Not Available (more)
PrimePCR™ Probe Assay: ACTB, Human
PrimePCR™ Probe Assay: Actb, Mouse
PrimePCR™ ddPCR™ Mutation Assay: AKT1 WT for p.E17K, Human
v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1
The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The activation is rapid and specific and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It was shown that the activation occurs through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In the developing nervous system AKT is a critical mediator of growth factor-induced neuronal survival. Survival factors can suppress apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner by activating the serine/threonine kinase AKT1 which then phosphorylates and inactivates components of the apoptotic machinery. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the Proteus syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2011] (more)
PrimePCR™ SYBR® Green Assay: ALAS1, Human
aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1
This gene encodes the mitochondrial enzyme which is catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme (iron-protoporphyrin) biosynthesis. The enzyme encoded by this gene is the housekeeping enzyme; a separate gene encodes a form of the enzyme that is specific for erythroid tissue. The level of the mature encoded protein is regulated by heme: high levels of heme down-regulate the mature enzyme in mitochondria while low heme levels up-regulate. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 12. Multiple alternatively spliced variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq Dec 2011] (more)
PrimePCR™ ddPCR™ Copy Number Assay: AP3B1, Human
adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit
This gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes platelet dense granules and lysosomes. The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin. Mutations in this gene are associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008] (more)
PrimePCR™ SYBR® Green Assay: B2M, Human
This gene encodes a serum protein found in association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chain on the surface of nearly all nucleated cells. The protein has a predominantly beta-pleated sheet structure that can form amyloid fibrils in some pathological conditions. A mutation in this gene has been shown to result in hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia.[provided by RefSeq Sep 2009] (more)
PrimePCR™ Probe Assay: B2M, Human
PrimePCR™ ddPCR™ Mutation Assay: BRAF WT for p.V600R, Human
v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
This gene encodes a protein belonging to the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway which affects cell division differentiation and secretion. Mutations in this gene are associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome a disease characterized by heart defects mental retardation and a distinctive facial appearance. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with various cancers including non-Hodgkin lymphoma colorectal cancer malignant melanoma thyroid carcinoma non-small cell lung carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of lung. A pseudogene which is located on chromosome X has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008] (more)
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