H P Jennissen, L M Heilmeyer
If the degree of substitution of Sepharose 4 B with alpha-alkylamines is varied gels of different hydrophobicity are produced. Proteins can be adsorbed when a critical hydrophobicity (ca. 10-12 alkyl residues/Sepharose sphere) is reached. The enzymes phosphorylase kinase, phosphorylase phosphatase, 3',5'-cAMP dependent protein kinase, glycogen synthetase, and phosphorylase b are successively adsorbed as the hydrophobicity of the Sepharose is increased. The capacity of the gels for these enzymes and protein in general increases exponentially reaches plateau values as a function of the degree of substitution. There is no indication of a restriction of the hydrophobic centers for a given protein. The critical hydrophobicity needed to adsorb proteins can either be otained in the above manner or by elongation of the employed alkylamine at a constant degree of substitution. Additonally, as the hydrophobicity of a gel is increased higher binding forces result and desorption of proteins requires an augmentation of the salt concentration in the elution buffer. Elution of proteins from a hydrophobic matrix can be described in terms of salting-in phenomena since desorption is dependent on the type of salt employed and not on the ionic strength alone. This also rules out ionic interactions as a major factor in adsorption per se. By rationally controlling the hydrophobicity of a Sepharose gel the adsorption and elution of a protein may be thus establised that its purification or elimination can be optimally performed.
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