T Liehr, H Starke, A Weise, H Lehrer, U Claussen
Histology and histopathology
Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays are nowadays indispensable for a precise description of complex chromosomal rearrangements. Routine application of such techniques on human chromosomes started in 1996 with the simultaneous use of all 24 human whole chromosome painting probes in multiplex-FISH (M-FISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY). Since then different approaches for chromosomal differentiation based on multicolor-FISH (mFISH) assays have been described. Predominantly, they have been established to characterize marker chromosomes identified in conventional banding analysis. Their characterization is of high clinical impact and is the requisite condition for further molecular investigations aimed at the identification of disease-related genes. Here we present a review on the available mFISH methods including their advantages, limitations and possible applications.
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