Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology

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Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology

Overview

Carbon Cycle
CO2 Cycle

A carbon cycle with the inclusion of biofuel production and use. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and in the presence of sunlight can convert it to complex polysaccharides including cellulose. Plants such as switchgrasses and poplar trees can be harvested and processed in a cellulosic ethanol plant to produce ethanol to fuel planes, cars, and trucks. However, the tractors and other vehicles used to process the switchgrasses, trees, and plants and the vehicles running on cellulosic ethanol still produce carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide also comes from respiration of animals, burning of fossil fuels, and breakdown of organic matter by microbes. Ideally, carbon dioxide produced by the manufacture and processing of biofuels will be reabsorbed by plants used to make the cellulosic ethanol. This is not the case with fossil fuel usage. The fossil fuels only contribute to carbon dioxide production.

Lab Preparation Checklist
Kit contains sufficient materials for 8 student workstations (2–4 students per workstation)
Enzyme, cellobiase, 1 ml 1 vial
Substrate, p-nitrophenol glucopyranoside, 90 mg 1 vial
Standard, p-nitrophenol (1 mM, 4 ml) 1 bottle
2x stop solution, 100 ml 1 bottle
10x resuspension buffer, 50 ml 1 bottle
Extraction buffer, 50 ml 1 bottle
Disposable plastics transfer pipets (DPTPs) 40
1.5 ml microcentrifuge tubes 90
15 ml conical tubes 50
1.5 ml standard disposable polystyrene cuvettes 100
Inquiry curriculum, including Teacher's Guide
1
Student Instruction Manual, available for download online 1
Required Accessories Not Included in Kit
Instructor setup or lab equipment Quantity Needed per Kit
500 ml bottle for preparing 1x resuspension buffer 1
200 ml bottle for preparing 1x stop solution 1
100 ml bottle for preparing high-concentration enzyme 1
100 ml bottle for preparing low-concentration enzyme 1
100 ml bottle for preparing 3 mM substrate 1
150 ml bottle for preparing 1.5 mM substrate 1
50 ml tubes or bottles for preparing standards 5
Serological pipettor 1
Pipets or graduated cylinders to measure volumes 4–450 ml As needed
Deionized or distilled water 1,000 ml
Lab tape 1 roll
Balance (for Investigation 1) 1
Parafilm 1 roll
Razor blade (for Investigation 1) 1
Mushrooms As needed
Student Workstation (4 Students)
All Investigations
Quantity per Station
Marking pens  
Timers or stopwatches  
Investigation 1: Determine how mushroom extracts compare in terms of cellobiase activity
Mortar and pestle 1
Weight boats or weigh paper 1
Filter paper, cheese cloth, or strainer 1
Mushroom sample (minimum 1 g) 1
Investigation 2: Determine the effect of temperature on the reaction rate
Ice bath (beaker with 0°C water) 1
Beaker with 37°C water 1
Beaker or ice bucket with chipped ice 1
Thermometer 1
Biofuel ThINQ™ Workflow
Flowchart


A ThINQ! Kit

The Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology is a student-driven, inquiry-based kit that characterizes the activity of the cellobiase enzyme. In this ThINQ! Investigation, students will play the role of bioengineer to explore the power of enzyme kinetics and optimize conditions that will maximize the rate of sugar conversion for the production of biofuel.

Features and Benefits

  • Aligns with AP Biology Big Ideas 2 and 4
  • Introduction to enzyme kinetics with real world application to biofuel energy
  • Enables both qualitative and quantitative measurements of reactions
  • Contains no caustic reagents

Classroom Experience

Students first extract cellobiase from mushrooms to discover one way that nature uses enzymes. They then generate questions and hypotheses about enzyme function under different environmental conditions — temperature, pH, and concentrations — that influence enzyme function. Students can take a structured, guided, or open approach to inquiry as they test their hypotheses. Finally, with data in hand, students use evidence to create a list of conditions for optimal enzymatic activity for biofuel production.

Timeline and Contents Overview

The flexible curriculum will fit within a broad range of available laboratory times. A possible arrangement is:

  • Day 1: Pre-lab activity and background review
  • Day 2: Investigation 1
  • Day 3: Investigations 2–5 (divided into groups)
  • Day 4: Investigation 6 and post-lab assessment
  • Day 5: Science Case Study

Background Information

Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel derived from plant matter. Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants; and cellobiose is a disaccharide constituent of cellulose. The breakdown of cellulose into smaller sugars is a multistep process that is facilitated by a family of enzymes called cellulases. Each cellulase has its own role in processing cellulose from a long strand of glucoses down to single units that can then undergo microbial fermentation to produce ethanol.

A key step in the production of cellulosic ethanol is the breakdown of cellobiose by the cellobiase enzyme. Students test and calculate the conversion rate of a sugar substrate (p–nitrophenyl glucopyranoside) to p–nitrophenol and glucose in the presence or absence of cellobiase.

Select the kit which is right for you and your students:

 

ThINQ! Biofuel Kit
(17001235EDU)

Classic Biofuel Kit
(1665035EDU)

Standards alignment

AP Biology

General Biology, Biotechnology, CTE

Pedagogical support

Open, guided, and structured inquiry

Structured inquiry

Main learning objectives

Focus on student-driven questions and problem solving

Mastery of technical skills

Initial experiment

Compare reaction rates of mushroom extracts

Focuses on inquiry process

Compare reaction rates with and without purified enzyme

Uses well characterized samples to obtain reproducible results

Kit contents

Materials for 8 student workstations to perform 1 initial experiment and up to 5 additional enrichment activities

Explore features of the Classic Biofuel Enzyme Kit.

Kit contains sufficient materials for 8 student workstations (2–4 students per workstation)  
Enzyme, cellobiase, 1 ml 1 vial
Substrate, p-nitrophenyl glucopyranoside, 90 mg 1 vial
Standard, p-nitrophenol, 1 mM, 4 ml 1 bottle
2x stop solution, 100 ml 1 bottle
10x resuspension buffer, 50 ml 1 bottle
Extraction buffer, 50 ml 1 bottle
Disposable plastic transfer pipets (DPTPs) 40
1.5 ml microcentrifuge tubes 90
15 ml conical tubes 50
1.5 ml standard disposable polystyrene cuvettes 100
Curriculum, including Teacher's Guide and Student Manual 1
Student Instruction Manual, available for download Download
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Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit
Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology

17001235EDU
Enzyme kinetics kit, includes enzyme, substrate, standard, solution, buffers, disposable pipets, tubes, and cuvettes for 32 students; inquiry-driven curriculum; education use only

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$168.75
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Number Description Options
10000058537 Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology Student Manual, Rev A Click to download
6840 Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology Teacher Manual Preview,
Ver A
Click to download
10000059026 Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology Teacher Model Process,
Rev A
Click to download
6815 AP Biology Alignment, ThINQ!™ Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology Click to download
6845 Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology Planning Guide Click to download
6849 Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit for AP Biology Quick Guide, Ver A Click to download
6730 Experimental Design and Planning Worksheet Click to download
6696 Mushroom Habitat Flashcards, Rev A Click to download
10000058536 Biofuel Enzyme Reactions Kit Science Case Study, Ver A Click to download
6605 Map of AP-Aligned Bio-Rad Kits with Learning Objectives, Ver C Click to download