CCR3 signaling in eosinophils
Human eosinophils are key effector cells implicated in a number of chronic
inflammatory reactions, associated with bronchial asthma, allergic-inflammatory diseases
and parasitic infections. Chemoattractants/chemokines, generated at the affected sites,
promote migration of eosinophils from vasculature into tissue. Chemotactic response of
eosinophils is mostly mediated by CC Chemokine Receptor-3
(CCR3), a member of G-protein-coupled receptor family, which
activates G-protein alpha-i family .
Chemokines of the eotaxin group (Eotaxin,
Eotaxin-2, and Eotaxin-3),
acting exclusively via CCR3, induce recruitment of
eosinophils to the sites of inflammation , . Other
eosinophil-activating chemokines (such as CCL5,
CCL7, CCL8 and
CCL13) can signal via CCR3 and
play a crucial role in eosinophil migration in tissues. These chemokines are not
selective and can signal via additional receptors .
CCR3 recruitment by eotaxins leads to activation of
mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK2 and
p38MAPK . ERK2
is activated in eosinophils via
class IB)/ PDK(PDPK1)/
c-Raf-1/ MEK1/2 kinases
(MAPK/ERK) pathway , . Although the upstream signaling of
p38MAPK in the
CCR3 pathway is still unclear, small GTPases
Rac1 and Rac2, and
PAK1 kinase actively participate in it , . Activation of ERK2 and
p38MAPK mediates release of arachidonic acid
by cytosolic phospholipase-A2 (cPLA2).
Arachidonic acid contributes to secretion of lipid
mediators, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, thus leading to inflammatory
response , , .
Eosinophils preferentially assemble NADPH oxidase in plasma membrane to generate
extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both Rac1 and
Rac2 activate the normally latent NADPH oxidase complex that
is composed of five essential subunits, the membrane-bound cytochrome b558 (a complex of
two subunits, p22-phox and
gp91-phox) that associates with cytosolic subunits
p47-phox and p67-phox (in a
complex with p40-phox) .
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressed in
eosinophils can be influenced by Rac2, thereby modulating
nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and inflammatory response , .
CCR3 also transduces signals eliciting
Ca(2+) influx . This pathway includes
activation of Phospholipase C beta
(PLC-beta) that is responsible for the
production of the second messengers Diacylglycerol
(DAG) and Inositol Triphosphate
(IP3). IP3 binds
to IP3 receptor on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum
and releases Ca(2+). .
DAG activates protein kinases C (e.g.
PKC-alpha) which are involved in regulation of MAPK/ERK
pathway , .
Small GTPase RhoA and its effector kinase,
ROCK2, are activated in eosinophils by eotaxin. Small
GTPases signaling plays a key role in the formation of stress fibers.
ROCK2 regulates actin cytoskeleton by inhibiting myosin
phosphatase (MLCP) activity and promoting regulatory
function of the myosin-binding subunits (MRLC), and myosin
light chains (MELC) to facilitate their binding to
Myosin heavy chain. Classical
Ca(2+) signaling involves myosin light chain
kinase (MLCK) activation by
leading to MRLC and MELC
phosphorylation. Alternative RhoA pathways, via
ROCK / LIM kinase 2
Cofilin or DIA1/
Profilin, lead to rearrangement of
Actin cytoskeletal and stress
fiber formation .
CCR3 also activates Hck and
FGR kinases, which regulate actin polymerization via
WASP/ Arp2/3 or
WASP / Profilin activation,
leading to the rapid cell shape changes required for cell migration .
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