Types of Chromatography

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Overview

Chromatography uses phase equilibrium partitioning principles to separate proteins, nucleic acids, or small molecules in complex mixtures based on their differing interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase. There are two main types of chromatography: liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC). Both LC and GC can be used for either preparative or analytical applications.

Chromatography methods can also be classified according to the chromatography media chemistry: the types of physicochemical interactions used to partition components into the stationary and mobile phases and so achieve separation. Here, we restrict our discussion to liquid chromatography media chemistries and media selection.

Related Topics: Medium-Pressure Chromatography, Affinity Chromatography, Ion Exchange Chromatography


 

Chromatography Media Chemistries

There are many different ways to use liquid chromatography to separate compounds of interest and the choice of technique usually depends on the physicochemical characteristics of the molecule of interest. The solid phases used for each type of chromatography, known as chromatography media or resins, are highly engineered porous inert supports functionalized with various chemical groups that determine the interactions with the molecules to be separated. Commonly used modes of separation are based on:

Here we give an overview of each of these chromatography methods. More detailed information can be found on their individual pages.

 

What Molecules Can Be Purified by Chromatography?

Bio-Rad offers a wide range of chromatography media for diverse research needs. Strong and weak anion and cation exchangers, different types of IMAC and protein A affinity media and size exclusion, hydrophobic interaction, and multimodal chromatography resins are available in bulk or in prepacked columns. Use the chart below to select the best media for your application.

Flow chart for selecting chromatography media Ion Exchange Size Exclusion Hydrophobic Interaction Ion Exchange Hydroxyapatite/Fluoroapatite Affinity Size Exclusion Hydrophobic Interaction

Affinity Chromatography

Affinity chromatography (AC) exploits specific interactions among molecules, for example, the binding of a protein to its in vivo binding partner or an antibody. Affinity chromatography is widely used for protein purification.

Proteins of interest can be genetically fused to affinity tags such as polyhistidine or glutathione S-transferase (GST), or modified posttranslationally with biotin or other nonpeptide tags. Chromatography resin can then be functionalized with molecules that specifically bind these tags, for example, reduced glutathione (GSH) to bind GST, or avidin/streptavidin to bind biotin.

When a complex protein mixture is passed over a functionalized resin, the protein of interest is immobilized on the resin but contaminating proteins are not bound. Likewise, antibodies can be captured by certain proteins immobilized on chromatography media. The molecule of interest can then be released from the resin using a buffer with a high salt concentration, a pH shift, or a competing ligand. Tagged proteins may be removed by enzymatic tag cleavage or other methods, and the protein can be repurified using an affinity column to capture the cleaved tags while allowing free protein to pass through.

Applications: affinity chromatography can be used as an initial capture step, an intermediate purification step, or a final polishing step.

Learn more on the Affinity Chromatography page.

Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography (IMAC)

A special subcategory of peptide tag–based affinity chromatography, immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), utilizes the interaction of histidine residues with divalent metal ions such as Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Co2+. A myriad of commercially available expression vectors can be used to add polyhistidine tags to proteins of interest to facilitate histidine-tagged recombinant protein purification.

Applications: IMAC can be used as an initial capture, intermediate purification, or final polishing step.

Nuvia™ IMAC Resin is a next-generation affinity chromatography media with ultra-high capacity over a wide range of pH and flow rates.

Learn more »
Nuvia™ IMAC Resin Cartridges

Ion Exchange Chromatography

Ion exchange chromatography (IEX) exploits the electrostatic interaction between opposite charges to separate proteins based on their isoelectric points (pI).

In a buffer with a pH greater than the pI of the protein of interest, the protein will have a net negative charge; thus, a positively charged anion exchange resin is chosen to capture the molecule of interest. The molecule is then eluted with a buffer with a pH lower than the protein pI, resulting in a net positive charge on the protein and a loss of attraction for the resin. Alternatively, an increasing gradient of negatively charged ions is used to displace the protein from the resin by competing with it for the positively charged groups on the resin. If the buffer pH is below the target molecule’s pI, the protein will carry a positive net charge and a negatively-charged cation exchange resin is chosen. The molecule is then eluted with a pH higher than the protein’s pI or with an increasing gradient of negatively charged ions.

Applications: IEX can be used as an initial capture step, an intermediate purification step, or a final polishing step.

Learn more on the Ion Exchange Chromatography page.

Size Exclusion Chromatography/Gel Filtration

Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), also called gel filtration chromatography, separates molecules based on their sizes. SEC resins are gels that contain beads with a known pore size. When a complex protein mixture is passed over SEC resin, small molecules move through the bead pores, whereas molecules too large to fit into the pores move around the beads and through the void space between beads. Since the traveled distance through the pores is greater than the distance around the beads, molecules elute from SEC resins in order of size — large molecules that are not trapped in bead pores travel a shorter distance and elute first and small molecules that are slowed by the bead pores elute last. Beads of different pore sizes can be purchased to achieve appropriate resolution.

Applications: SEC is not suitable as a first purification step but is often used as a final polishing step for buffer exchange and to remove protein fragments and aggregates.

Learn more on the Size Exclusion Chromatography page.

Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography

Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) separates molecules based on their hydrophobicity. Hydrophobic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) are generally buried within the three-dimensional structure of proteins, although some can be exposed on the protein surface. In an aqueous solvent, hydrophobic residues interact with each other via Van der Waals interaction, which is exploited for HIC. HIC resin is functionalized with aliphatic compounds that interact with and bind hydrophobic residues in proteins. This interaction can be modulated by differing salt concentration, pH, temperature, and organic solvent concentration. In particular, high ionic strength increases the interaction of hydrophobic residues with the HIC resin. For this reason HIC columns are generally loaded in high salt. Proteins are then eluted using a reverse salt (often ammonium sulfate) gradient or a gradient of organic solvent such as ethylene glycol.

Applications: HIC is suitable for initial capture, intermediate purification, and final polishing steps. HIC is an excellent choice following ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography due to its compatibility with high-ionic-strength buffers.

Learn more on the Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography page.

Multimodal or Mixed-Mode Chromatography

Multimodal or mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) incorporates multiple modes of chromatography in a single resin. This enhances the selectivity of the resin because proteins can be separated based on several of their characteristics, rather than just a single one. MMC is of great value in cases where other resins cannot provide sufficient resolution.

Applications: MMC is an excellent choice for initial capture, intermediate, and polishing steps.

Learn more on the Multimodal or Mixed-Mode Chromatography page.

 

Chromatography Media Selection

Protein purification can present significant challenges and may require a combination of chromatography techniques, for example, using several different chromatography resins in sequence. When designing a purification workflow it is important to keep downstream applications in mind. For applications such as crystallography, a high-purity, correctly-folded protein is essential. In other cases, functional purity is sufficient; if a protein of interest is assayed for an activity that can be accurately determined even in the presence of low-level contaminants, it may not be necessary to include additional purification steps to remove these contaminants.

A good rule of thumb is to get to the required level of purity in the least number of steps.

When possible, choose column combinations that do not require buffer exchange or concentration steps. IEX columns are eluted in high salt, whereas HIC columns are loaded at high salt — samples eluted from an IEX column are therefore already in the high ionic strength buffer required for HIC. A third SEC step can be added to the IEX → HIC combination as a polishing step to remove salt and aggregates.

Some affinity chromatography resins, conversely, are incompatible with high-ionic-strength buffers. Rather than choosing an IEX → buffer exchange → AC → HIC workflow, an IEX → HIC → AC combination would allow you to eliminate the buffer exchange step.

If ammonium sulfate precipitation is already part of your sample prep, an HIC column is an excellent first purification step. An IEX resin would be a poor first column choice, as your sample is not in the required low-ionic-strength buffer.

An important consideration when contemplating use of SEC resins is that samples often have to be concentrated unless their volume is already small. SEC resin performance also decreases at high protein concentrations. The requirement for small sample volume at low protein concentration can eliminate SEC resins as an option for some purification workflows.

Finally, features of the protein of interest are also important considerations. The high ionic strength required for HIC may cause the protein of interest to “salt out”, that is, precipitate from solution due to physicochemical effects of various salts. In other cases, the protein of interest may quickly lose activity, making speed an important consideration for your workflow; in this case resins such as IEX and HIC that can accommodate high flow rates are excellent choices.

 
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There are two main types of chromatography: liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC). Both LC and GC can be used for either preparative or analytical applications. <br /></p> <p>Chromatography methods can also be classified according to the chromatography media chemistry: the types of physicochemical interactions used to partition components into the stationary and mobile phases and so achieve separation. Here, we restrict our discussion to liquid chromatography media chemistries and media selection.</p> <p><strong>Related Topics:</strong> <a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/medium-pressure-chromatography">Medium-Pressure Chromatography</a>, <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=MWHAVG4VY">Affinity Chromatography</a>, <a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/ion-exchange-chromatography">Ion Exchange Chromatography</a><a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=MWHB6KKSY"></a></p> <br /> Chromatography Media Chemistries <p>There are many different ways to use liquid chromatography to separate compounds of interest and the choice of technique usually depends on the physicochemical characteristics of the molecule of interest. The solid phases used for each type of chromatography, known as chromatography media or resins, are highly engineered porous inert supports functionalized with various chemical groups that determine the interactions with the molecules to be separated. Commonly used modes of separation are based on:</p> <ul> <li>Specific binding interactions (<a href="#affinity">affinity chromatography</a>) </li> <li>Charge (<a href="#iex">ion exchange chromatography</a>) </li> <li>Size (<a href="#sec">size exclusion chromatography/gel filtration chromatography</a>)</li> <li>Hydrophobic surface area (<a href="#hic">hydrophobic interaction chromatography</a> and reverse phase chromatography)</li> <li>Multiple properties (<a href="#mmc">multimodal or mixed-mode chromatography</a>)</li> </ul> <p>Here we give an overview of each of these chromatography methods. More detailed information can be found on their individual pages.</p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> What Molecules Can Be Purified by Chromatography? <p>Bio-Rad offers a wide range of chromatography media for diverse research needs. Strong and weak anion and cation exchangers, different types of IMAC and protein A affinity media and size exclusion, hydrophobic interaction, and multimodal chromatography resins are available in bulk or in prepacked columns. Use the chart below to select the best media for your application.</p> <p><img usemap="#Map" src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/chromatography-media-decision-tree-types-of-chromatography.jpg" alt="Flow chart for selecting chromatography media" width="597" height="460" /> <map name="Map"> <area shape="rect" coords="14,110,124,138" href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/ion-exchange-chromatography" alt="Ion Exchange"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="129,110,239,138" href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/size-exclusion-chromatography" alt="Size Exclusion"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="245,110,355,138" href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/hydrophobic-interaction-chromatography" alt="Hydrophobic Interaction"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="14,284,124,313" href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/ion-exchange-chromatography" alt="Ion Exchange"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="129,284,239,313" href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSN9AKG4" alt="Hydroxyapatite/Fluoroapatite"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="245,285,356,313" href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/affinity-chromatography" alt="Affinity"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="360,284,470,313" href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/size-exclusion-chromatography" alt="Size Exclusion"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="477,285,587,313" href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/hydrophobic-interaction-chromatography" alt="Hydrophobic Interaction"></area> <!-- Ion Exchange --> <area shape="rect" coords="14,148,123,167" href="/en-us/category/analytical-grade-ion-exchange-resins"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="14,174,123,192" href="/evportal/destination/product?catID=dcedd7d7-b864-4e48-8769-696e63ea21db"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="14,200,123,218" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6448ab3e-b96a-4162-9124-7b7d2330288e"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="14,225,123,242" href="/evportal/destination/product?catID=6512cba2-a0c6-4062-915c-6d0df409bdec"></area> <!-- Size Exclusion --> <area shape="rect" coords="130,148,238,167" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f16fb023-70d7-423b-a61c-7a746c8fd3e1"></area> <!-- Hydrophobic Interaction --> <area shape="rect" coords="245,148,355,238" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=71e861b8-007e-4e9c-b239-c10e12ffa7e4"></area> <!-- Ion Exchange II --> <area shape="rect" coords="14,325,123,341" href="/en-us/category/medium-pressure-chromatography-columns"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="14,350,123,366" href="/evportal/destination/product?catID=14540f34-d694-47ce-986c-1e5857cadaee"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="14,375,123,393" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=36286010-253e-4553-b13d-8b5917f8e93a"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="14,400,123,417" href="/evportal/destination/product?catID=L2DCEM15"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="14,425,123,443" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=029d7515-f0ae-4f0f-8274-1146e071de23"></area> <!-- Hydroxyapatite Flouroapatite --> <area shape="rect" coords="131,325,237,341" href="/evportal/destination/product?catID=1d5f6d4f-4485-4bb1-87f6-c1cd1303c076"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="131,350,237,366" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f6456568-f543-48d2-a210-b727ab3137e8"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="131,375,237,393" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=1e754042-4d9d-4487-ba7b-dc67dec9f8fc"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="131,400,237,417" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=1e754042-4d9d-4487-ba7b-dc67dec9f8fc"></area> <!-- Affinity --> <area shape="rect" coords="247,325,354,341" href="/en-us/product/profinity-imac-resin"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="247,350,354,366" href="/evportal/destination/product?catID=7cfd36fa-86d7-481c-9786-571ba2d3656f"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="247,375,354,393" href="/evportal/destination/product?catID=7cfd36fa-86d7-481c-9786-571ba2d3656f"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="248,402,355,419" href="/en-us/product/unosphere-supra-resin"></area> <!-- Size Exclusion --> <area shape="rect" coords="362,325,470,341" href="/en-us/product/bio-gel-p-polyacrylamide-gels"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="362,350,470,366" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7d922386-85be-4295-a797-e574d7b5f4f6"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="362,375,470,393" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f16fb023-70d7-423b-a61c-7a746c8fd3e1"></area> <!-- Hydrophobic Interaction II --> <area shape="rect" coords="477,325,585,350" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=079a7f90-61bd-4ee3-bdbd-3788039fa9a3"></area> <area shape="rect" coords="477,350,585,386" href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=079a7f90-61bd-4ee3-bdbd-3788039fa9a3"></area> </map> </p> <!-- <div style="float:right; margin-left:20px; margin-bottom:20px" mce_style="float:right; margin-left:20px; margin-bottom:20px"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/affinity-chromatography-ac-liquid-chromatography.jpg" mce_src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/affinity-chromatography-ac-liquid-chromatography.jpg" alt="Affinity Chromatography" width="198" height="308" /></div> --> <h4><a id="affinity" name="affinity"></a>Affinity Chromatography</h4> <p><strong>Affinity chromatography (AC)</strong> exploits specific interactions among molecules, for example, the binding of a protein to its in vivo binding partner or an antibody. Affinity chromatography is widely used for protein purification.</p> <p>Proteins of interest can be genetically fused to affinity tags such as polyhistidine or glutathione S-transferase (GST), or modified posttranslationally with biotin or other nonpeptide tags. Chromatography resin can then be functionalized with molecules that specifically bind these tags, for example, reduced glutathione (GSH) to bind GST, or avidin/streptavidin to bind biotin.</p> <p>When a complex protein mixture is passed over a functionalized resin, the protein of interest is immobilized on the resin but contaminating proteins are not bound. Likewise, antibodies can be captured by certain proteins immobilized on chromatography media. The molecule of interest can then be released from the resin using a buffer with a high salt concentration, a pH shift, or a competing ligand. Tagged proteins may be removed by enzymatic tag cleavage or other methods, and the protein can be repurified using an affinity column to capture the cleaved tags while allowing free protein to pass through.</p> <p><strong>Applications:</strong> affinity chromatography can be used as an initial capture step, an intermediate purification step, or a final polishing step.</p> <p>Learn more on the <a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/affinity-chromatography">Affinity Chromatography</a> page.</p> <h4><a name="imac"></a>Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography (IMAC)</h4> <p>A special subcategory of peptide tag&ndash;based affinity chromatography, <strong>immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC)</strong>, utilizes the interaction of histidine residues with divalent metal ions such as Ni<sup>2+</sup>, Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup>, and Co<sup>2+</sup>. A myriad of commercially available expression vectors can be used to add polyhistidine tags to proteins of interest to facilitate<a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/histidine-tagged-recombinant-protein-purification-column-refolding"> histidine-tagged recombinant protein purification</a>.</p> <p><strong>Applications:</strong> IMAC can be used as an initial capture, intermediate purification, or final polishing step.</p> <div class="bannerAT"> <div class="bannerText ddpcrText" style="width: 392px !important;"> <h2 class="banner_header">Rapidly purify histidine-tagged recombinant proteins.</h2> <p>Nuvia&trade; IMAC Resin is a next-generation affinity chromatography media with ultra-high capacity over a wide range of pH and flow rates.</p> <a class="linkgeneration" href="/_locale/product/nuvia-imac-resin?at_banner=Types of Chromatography&amp;at_banner_rev=Types of Chromatography&amp;at_banner_e=c">Learn more &raquo;</a></div> <img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/global/english/solutions/nuvia-imac-resin-cartridges.jpg" alt="Nuvia&trade; IMAC Resin Cartridges" width="615" height="120" /></div> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> <script src="/webroot/web/js/countrySpecific-min.js" type="text/javascript"></script> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- $(document).ready(function(){ setSterlingUrlsToHtmlHrefVariables(); $('a.linkgeneration').each(function(){ $(this).attr('href', $(this).attr('href').replace('_locale', languageCode + '-' + countryCode).replace('_verticalUrl', currentVerticalUrlTitle).replace('_defaultVerticalUrl', defaultVerticalUrlTitle).replace('_feedbackCMSID',feedbackCMSID)); }); }); // --></script> <h4><a id="iex" name="iex"></a>Ion Exchange Chromatography</h4> <p><span style="font-weight:bold">Ion exchange chromatography</span><strong> (IEX)</strong> exploits the electrostatic interaction between opposite charges to separate proteins based on their isoelectric points (pI).</p> <p>In a buffer with a pH greater than the pI of the protein of interest, the protein will have a net negative charge; thus, a positively charged <a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/anion-exchange-chromatography">anion exchange</a> resin is chosen to capture the molecule of interest. The molecule is then eluted with a buffer with a pH lower than the protein pI, resulting in a net positive charge on the protein and a loss of attraction for the resin. Alternatively, an increasing gradient of negatively charged ions is used to displace the protein from the resin by competing with it for the positively charged groups on the resin. If the buffer pH is below the target molecule&rsquo;s pI, the protein will carry a positive net charge and a negatively-charged <a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/cation-exchange-chromatography">cation exchange</a> resin is chosen. The molecule is then eluted with a pH higher than the protein&rsquo;s pI or with an increasing gradient of negatively charged ions.</p> <p><strong>Applications</strong>: IEX can be used as an initial capture step, an intermediate purification step, or a final polishing step.</p> <p>Learn more on the <a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/ion-exchange-chromatography">Ion Exchange Chromatography</a> page.</p> <!-- <div style="float:right; margin-left: 20px; margin-bottom:20px" mce_style="float:right; margin-left: 20px; margin-bottom:20px"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/size-exclusion-chromatography-sec-liquid-chromatography.jpg" mce_src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/size-exclusion-chromatography-sec-liquid-chromatography.jpg" alt="Size Exclusion Chromatography" width="198" height="218" /></div> --> <h4><a id="sec" name="sec"></a>Size Exclusion Chromatography/Gel Filtration</h4> <p><span style="font-weight:bold">Size exclusion chromatography</span> <strong>(SEC)</strong>, also called gel filtration chromatography, separates molecules based on their sizes. SEC resins are gels that contain beads with a known pore size. When a complex protein mixture is passed over SEC resin, small molecules move through the bead pores, whereas molecules too large to fit into the pores move around the beads and through the void space between beads. Since the traveled distance through the pores is greater than the distance around the beads, molecules elute from SEC resins in order of size &mdash; large molecules that are not trapped in bead pores travel a shorter distance and elute first and small molecules that are slowed by the bead pores elute last. Beads of different pore sizes can be purchased to achieve appropriate resolution.</p> <p><strong>Applications</strong>: SEC is not suitable as a first purification step but is often used as a final polishing step for buffer exchange and to remove protein fragments and aggregates.</p> <p>Learn more on the <a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography/size-exclusion-chromatography">Size Exclusion Chromatography</a> page.</p> <!-- <div style="float:right; margin-left:20px; margin-bottom:20px" mce_style="float:right; margin-left:20px; margin-bottom:20px"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/hydrophobic-interaction-chromatography-hic-liquid-chromatography.jpg" mce_src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/hydrophobic-interaction-chromatography-hic-liquid-chromatography.jpg" alt="Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography" width="210" height="211" /></div> --> <h4><a id="hic" name="hic"></a>Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography</h4> <p><span style="font-weight="><strong>Hydrophobic interaction chromatography</strong> (HIC)<strong> </strong></span>separates molecules based on their hydrophobicity. Hydrophobic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) are generally buried within the three-dimensional structure of proteins, although some can be exposed on the protein surface. In an aqueous solvent, hydrophobic residues interact with each other via Van der Waals interaction, which is exploited for HIC. HIC resin is functionalized with aliphatic compounds that interact with and bind hydrophobic residues in proteins. This interaction can be modulated by differing salt concentration, pH, temperature, and organic solvent concentration. In particular, high ionic strength increases the interaction of hydrophobic residues with the HIC resin. For this reason HIC columns are generally loaded in high salt. Proteins are then eluted using a reverse salt (often ammonium sulfate) gradient or a gradient of organic solvent such as ethylene glycol.</p> <p><strong>Applications:</strong> HIC is suitable for initial capture, intermediate purification, and final polishing steps. HIC is an excellent choice following ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography due to its compatibility with high-ionic-strength buffers.</p> <p>Learn more on the <a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography/hydrophobic-interaction-chromatography">Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography</a> page.</p> <!-- <div style="float:right; margin-left:20px; margin-bottom:20px" mce_style="float:right; margin-left:20px; margin-bottom:20px"><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/multimodal-or-mixed-mode-chromatography-mmc-liquid-chromatography.jpg" mce_src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/multimodal-or-mixed-mode-chromatography-mmc-liquid-chromatography.jpg" alt="Multimodal or mixed-mode chromatography (MMC)" width="401" height="250" /></div> --> <h4><a name="mmc"></a>Multimodal or Mixed-Mode Chromatography</h4> <p><strong>Multimodal or mixed-mode chromatography</strong> (MMC) incorporates multiple modes of chromatography in a single resin. This enhances the selectivity of the resin because proteins can be separated based on several of their characteristics, rather than just a single one. MMC is of great value in cases where other resins cannot provide sufficient resolution.</p> <p><strong>Applications</strong>: MMC is an excellent choice for initial capture, intermediate, and polishing steps.</p> <p>Learn more on the <a href="/en-us/applications-technologies/liquid-chromatography-principles/multimodal-or-mixed-mode-chromatography">Multimodal or Mixed-Mode Chromatography</a> page.</p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Chromatography Media Selection <p>Protein purification can present significant challenges and may require a combination of chromatography techniques, for example, using several different chromatography resins in sequence. When designing a purification workflow it is important to keep downstream applications in mind. For applications such as crystallography, a high-purity, correctly-folded protein is essential. In other cases, functional purity is sufficient; if a protein of interest is assayed for an activity that can be accurately determined even in the presence of low-level contaminants, it may not be necessary to include additional purification steps to remove these contaminants.</p> <p>A good rule of thumb is to <strong>get to the required level of purity in the least number of steps</strong>.</p> <p>When possible, choose column combinations that do not require buffer exchange or concentration steps. IEX columns are eluted in high salt, whereas HIC columns are loaded at high salt &mdash; samples eluted from an IEX column are therefore already in the high ionic strength buffer required for HIC. A third SEC step can be added to the IEX &rarr; HIC combination as a polishing step to remove salt and aggregates.</p> <p>Some affinity chromatography resins, conversely, are incompatible with high-ionic-strength buffers. Rather than choosing an IEX &rarr; buffer exchange &rarr; AC &rarr; HIC workflow, an IEX &rarr; HIC &rarr; AC combination would allow you to eliminate the buffer exchange step.</p> <p>If ammonium sulfate precipitation is already part of your sample prep, an HIC column is an excellent first purification step. An IEX resin would be a poor first column choice, as your sample is not in the required low-ionic-strength buffer.</p> <p>An important consideration when contemplating use of SEC resins is that samples often have to be concentrated unless their volume is already small. SEC resin performance also decreases at high protein concentrations. The requirement for small sample volume at low protein concentration can eliminate SEC resins as an option for some purification workflows.</p> <p>Finally, features of the protein of interest are also important considerations. The high ionic strength required for HIC may cause the protein of interest to &ldquo;salt out&rdquo;, that is, precipitate from solution due to physicochemical effects of various salts. In other cases, the protein of interest may quickly lose activity, making speed an important consideration for your workflow; in this case resins such as IEX and HIC that can accommodate high flow rates are excellent choices.</p> <!-- <h3 class="about_group_headers" style="padding-bottom:10px" mce_style="padding-bottom:10px">Chromatography Media Selection Guide</h3> <table class="pd_table pd_gridlines" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-top:1px solid #000;" mce_style="border-top:1px solid #000;" colspan="2" valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td style="border-top:1px solid #000;" mce_style="border-top:1px solid #000;" colspan="3" align="center" valign="top"><b>Suitability**</b></td> <td style="border-top:1px solid #000;" mce_style="border-top:1px solid #000;" valign="top">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="bottom"><b>Media Type</b></td> <td valign="bottom"><b>Packaging<br /> Format*</b></td> <td style="border-top:1px solid #000;" mce_style="border-top:1px solid #000;" valign="bottom"><b>Analytical<br /> Scale</b></td> <td style="border-top:1px solid #000;" mce_style="border-top:1px solid #000;" valign="bottom"><b>Pilot/<br /> Preparative<br /> Scale</b></td> <td style="border-top:1px solid #000;" mce_style="border-top:1px solid #000;" valign="bottom"><b>Process<br /> Scale</b></td> <td valign="bottom"><b>Application</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top:1px solid #000;" mce_style="border-top:1px solid #000;" colspan="6" valign="top"><b>Anion Exchange Chromatography Media</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=c8ee0998-3f05-4c43-9179-2b318ef5e15f" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=c8ee0998-3f05-4c43-9179-2b318ef5e15f">AG<sup>&reg;</sup> 1</a></td> <td valign="top">B, GC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. Separation of low MW peptides, nucleotides, inorganic ions using different crosslinkages; high selectivity for anions such as chloride; gravity or low-pressure use</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=9d70419d-626a-4ca1-9928-cc25738eff99" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=9d70419d-626a-4ca1-9928-cc25738eff99">AG MP-1M </a></td> <td valign="top">B, GC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++ +</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. Macroporous, equivalent to AG 1 for MW &gt;1,000,000; gravity or low pressure use</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b2125a69-a777-424f-8c10-99b453263a57" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b2125a69-a777-424f-8c10-99b453263a57">Bio-Rex&trade; 5</a> and <br /> <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/prd/en/US/adirect/biorad?cmd=catProductDetail&amp;vertical=LSR&amp;productID=140-4341&amp;vertical=LSR&amp;parentCategoryGUID=dce910ad-f7ef-4500-99cc-5e7deb4197de" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/prd/en/US/adirect/biorad?cmd=catProductDetail&amp;vertical=LSR&amp;productID=140-4341&amp;vertical=LSR&amp;parentCategoryGUID=dce910ad-f7ef-4500-99cc-5e7deb4197de">AG 4-X4</a></td> <td valign="top">B, GC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Weak exchanger. Used to remove organic acids from sugars; adsorption of mineral acids; gravity or low-pressure use</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="/evportal/destination/commerce/sku_detail?productID=720-0009" mce_href="/evportal/destination/commerce/sku_detail?productID=720-0009">UNO<sup>&reg;</sup> Q</a></td> <td valign="top">MPC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. High-resolution biomolecule separation at high flow rates; pH stability 2&ndash;12</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=963aeae1-7233-47c2-bd22-88dda61a39b1" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=963aeae1-7233-47c2-bd22-88dda61a39b1">Macro-Prep<sup>&reg;</sup> <br /> High Q</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">+++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. High-capacity biomolecule separation; unique surface chemistry allows contaminant removal; pH stability 1&ndash;10</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e85d9dc9-321a-49ef-8741-224725d390e6" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e85d9dc9-321a-49ef-8741-224725d390e6">Macro-Prep<br />25 Q</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. Similar to Macro-Prep High Q but 25 &micro;m particle size allows higher-resolution separation; unique surface chemistry allows contaminant removal; pH stability 1&ndash;10</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b67f362d-de39-4eee-9b66-775834614dd2" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b67f362d-de39-4eee-9b66-775834614dd2">Macro-Prep DEAE</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">+++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Weak exchanger. High-capacity biomolecule separation; unique surface chemistry allows contaminant removal; pH stability 1&ndash;10</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=9f94b8bc-4b23-48da-b60b-b2b8570cabb9" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=9f94b8bc-4b23-48da-b60b-b2b8570cabb9">UNOsphere&trade; Q</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. High-productivity, high-capacity biomolecule separation; pH stability 1&ndash;14</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="/evportal/destination/product?catID=dcedd7d7-b864-4e48-8769-696e63ea21db" mce_href="/evportal/destination/product?catID=dcedd7d7-b864-4e48-8769-696e63ea21db">Aminex<sup>&reg;</sup></a></td> <td valign="top">HPLC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">High-pressure separation of carbohydrates, sugars, and small organic molecules; delivers industry-standard performance (U.S. Pharmacopeia)</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="6" valign="top"><b>Cation Exchange Chromatography Media</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=0c308553-8af9-4991-9f81-660f2298b385" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=0c308553-8af9-4991-9f81-660f2298b385">AG 50W</a></td> <td valign="top">B, GC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. Lower degree of crosslinkage, useful for peptide and nucleotide separation; higher crosslinkages useful for small peptide and metals separation or cation removal; gravity or low-pressure use</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=0c308553-8af9-4991-9f81-660f2298b385" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=0c308553-8af9-4991-9f81-660f2298b385">AG MP-50</a></td> <td valign="top">B, GC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. Macroporous equivalent to AG 50W for MW &gt;1,000,000; gravity or low pressure use</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b565fec4-b7e7-40a3-89b4-3bccede7152c" mce_href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b565fec4-b7e7-40a3-89b4-3bccede7152c">Bio-Rex MSZ 501</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">Same as AG 50 but with more uniform bead size; large bead size (650 &micro;m) makes it ideal for large-scale (column or batch) industrial applications</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=029d7515-f0ae-4f0f-8274-1146e071de23" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=029d7515-f0ae-4f0f-8274-1146e071de23">Bio-Rex 70</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">Weak exchanger. High capacity for high MW (&gt;1,000,000) solutes; can be used for purification and fractionation of peptides, proteins, enzymes, and other cationic molecules. Amenable to large-scale purification</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6448ab3e-b96a-4162-9124-7b7d2330288e" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6448ab3e-b96a-4162-9124-7b7d2330288e">Chelex<sup>&reg;</sup> 100</a></td> <td valign="top">B, GC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++ +</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Weak exchanger. Chelating resin removes metals and is suitable for PCR applications; can also be used for ultrapurification of buffers and ionic reagents; gravity or lowpressure use. Available in molecular biology and biotechnology grades</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="/evportal/destination/commerce/sku_detail?productID=720-0029" mce_href="/evportal/destination/commerce/sku_detail?productID=720-0029">UNO S</a></td> <td valign="top">MPC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. High-resolution biomolecule separation at high flow rates; pH stability 2&ndash;12</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=5f0f3b17-a6bb-4eb8-b74f-d7184d5fbfd9" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=5f0f3b17-a6bb-4eb8-b74f-d7184d5fbfd9">Macro-Prep<br />25 S</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. Similar to Macro-Prep High S, but 25 &micro;m particle size allows higher-resolution separation; unique surface chemistry allows contaminant removal; pH stability 1&ndash;10</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=24884a41-3f11-47f4-a4b5-6b8d6d408ae7" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=24884a41-3f11-47f4-a4b5-6b8d6d408ae7">Macro-Prep<br /> High S</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">+++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. High-capacity biomolecule separation; unique surface chemistry allows contaminant removal; pH stability 1&ndash;10</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=8d374055-8d46-4b36-b72d-6a38c5ef1547" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=8d374055-8d46-4b36-b72d-6a38c5ef1547">Macro-Prep CM</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">+++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Weak exchanger. High-capacity biomolecule separation; unique surface chemistry<br /> allows contaminant removal; pH stability 1&ndash;10</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=71b79e5f-6fa5-4983-bc6b-35ee3bb23eb8" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=71b79e5f-6fa5-4983-bc6b-35ee3bb23eb8">UNOsphere S</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. High-capacity biomolecule separation; pH stability 1&ndash;14</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=3d0bab7e-2652-4b2b-9ce5-4c699f267e13" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=3d0bab7e-2652-4b2b-9ce5-4c699f267e13">UNOsphere Rapid S</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. Similar to UNOsphere S but with enhanced chemistries to overcome the pH shift that occurs with conductivity transitions and faster equilibration times; pH stability 1&ndash;14</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=L2DCMZ15" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=L2DCMZ15">Nuvia&trade; S</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Strong exchanger. Similar to UNOsphere S but surface modification allows extremely high-capacity biomolecule separation; pH stability 1&ndash;14</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="6" valign="top"><b>Specialty Ion Exchange Chromatography Media</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=8501b3a8-b9d5-414f-bed2-5420405c5402" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=8501b3a8-b9d5-414f-bed2-5420405c5402">AG 11 A8</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Ion retardation &mdash; contains cation and anion exchange sites that weakly interact with mobile ions; can be used for desalting nonionic molecules with water elution, for example, removing SDS from proteins and the adsorption of mineral acids</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b565fec4-b7e7-40a3-89b4-3bccede7152c" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b565fec4-b7e7-40a3-89b4-3bccede7152c">AG 501-X8</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Mixed bed, consists of equivalent amounts of AG 1-X8 and AG 50W-X8. May be used to deionize water, urea, formamide, and acrylamide to provide extremely pure reagents</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b565fec4-b7e7-40a3-89b4-3bccede7152c" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b565fec4-b7e7-40a3-89b4-3bccede7152c">Bio-Rex MSZ 501</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">Mixed bed, consists of equivalent amounts of Bio-Rex MSZ 1 and Bio-Rex MSZ 50 media. Monosized ion exchange; desalting of water and nonelectrolytes. Ideal for large-scale industrial applications</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="6" valign="top"><b>Size Exclusion (Gel Filtration) Chromatography Media</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=4b0550d0-51b7-4008-8722-dcffe095676b" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=4b0550d0-51b7-4008-8722-dcffe095676b">Bio-Gel<sup>&reg;</sup> P</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C, SC, GC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Separation of molecules by size; desalting and buffer exchange; availability of several particle size ranges with MW exclusion limits ranging from 100 to 100,000 D; pH stability 2&ndash;10</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f16fb023-70d7-423b-a61c-7a746c8fd3e1" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f16fb023-70d7-423b-a61c-7a746c8fd3e1">Bio-Beads&trade; S-X</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Fractionation of low MW organic polymers and other hydrophobic substances in nonpolar solvents from 400&ndash;14,000 D</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="6" valign="top"><b>Affinity Chromatography Media</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e83abc43-ee22-4152-bdc7-7a3c021247b9" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e83abc43-ee22-4152-bdc7-7a3c021247b9">UNOsphere SUPrA&trade;</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Antibody purification; Fc-fusion purification from large volumes of feed/cell culture; development and commercial-scale mAb purification process applications</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=c732bea9-496b-43e7-a86e-0a0b6a2acf0c" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=c732bea9-496b-43e7-a86e-0a0b6a2acf0c">Affi-Gel<sup>&reg;</sup> protein A</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C, GC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">IgG purification from ascites, serum, and culture fluid; low-pressure media</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=8d9b6d24-0bae-463c-aed3-4e70f4d98861" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=8d9b6d24-0bae-463c-aed3-4e70f4d98861">Affi-Prep<sup>&reg;</sup> protein A</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">IgG purification from ascites, serum, and culture fluid; pressure-stable media</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=4d1854d4-ce76-4696-b63c-68bd767d02a8" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=4d1854d4-ce76-4696-b63c-68bd767d02a8">Affi-Gel Blue</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C, SC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Albumin removal and enzyme purification; Cibacron Blue F3GA dye covalently attached; purification of proteins with dinucleotide fold</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f9236901-b45f-4abb-8bca-54809e6f2dd8" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f9236901-b45f-4abb-8bca-54809e6f2dd8">DEAE Affi-Gel Blue</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C, GC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Albumin and protease removal for IgG purification; Cibacron Blue F3GA dye covalently attached to DEAE Bio-Gel A</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=403709b1-ae78-467d-a5c0-e6bdb4c641c3" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=403709b1-ae78-467d-a5c0-e6bdb4c641c3">CM Affi-Gel Blue</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Albumin and protease removal for IgG purification; Cibacron Blue F3GA dye covalently attached to CM Bio-Gel A</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=55928937-6100-4a02-86b6-c12b2cb5bec9" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=55928937-6100-4a02-86b6-c12b2cb5bec9">Affi-Gel heparin</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Purification of coagulation factors, plasma proteins, and enzymes including nucleases, lipases, and proteases; binding specificity for a variety of enzymes and other proteins</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e54ab03c-d281-4e6b-aa0d-193b7737626d" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e54ab03c-d281-4e6b-aa0d-193b7737626d">Profinity&trade; IMAC</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">Purification of proteins tagged with histidine residues</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6ab42e5f-871c-4d64-8bec-ff20c7615ccf" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6ab42e5f-871c-4d64-8bec-ff20c7615ccf">Profinia&trade; GST</a></td> <td valign="top">C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">GST-tagged protein purification</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=146effdf-4529-4b08-8b01-8df71240693a" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=146effdf-4529-4b08-8b01-8df71240693a">Profinity eXact&trade;</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C, SC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">One-step affinity tag purification and on-column cleavage</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=5c53a1f3-b0da-4799-8a54-7e94f090e0f9" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=5c53a1f3-b0da-4799-8a54-7e94f090e0f9">Affi-Prep polymyxin</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Removal of endotoxins; pressure-stable media; can be sanitized with NaOH</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7c21b77d-8b10-4f8e-a526-1123254ef173" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7c21b77d-8b10-4f8e-a526-1123254ef173">Affi-Gel boronate</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Affinity for low MW molecules containing <i>cis</i>-hydroxyl (<i>cis</i>-diol) groups; separation of AMP from cyclic AMP</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"> <p><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=fd9c8740-265e-491c-a084-340cd1dd136a" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=fd9c8740-265e-491c-a084-340cd1dd136a">Profinity epoxide</a></p> </td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Affinity coupling; coupling of nucleophiles such as hydroxyl (&ndash;OH), amino (&ndash;NH<sub>2</sub>), or thiol (&ndash;SH) groups; based on UNOsphere base matrix for superb pressure/flow characteristics</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=89330806-d577-4d2f-8e46-174410dcb919" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=89330806-d577-4d2f-8e46-174410dcb919">Affi-Gel 10</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Affinity coupling; immobilization of ligands with &ndash;NH<sub>2</sub> groups, coupling of proteins with pI 6.5&ndash;11; low pressure media</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7ee690a7-8318-4bd4-95d8-f7b8f90d05da" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7ee690a7-8318-4bd4-95d8-f7b8f90d05da">Affi-Gel 15</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Affinity coupling; immobilization of ligands with &ndash;NH<sub>2</sub> groups, coupling of proteins with pI &lt; 6.5; low-pressure media</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=926e2590-3fd0-4ccc-a9b2-a6b116953758" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=926e2590-3fd0-4ccc-a9b2-a6b116953758">Affi-Gel Hz</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Affinity coupling; immobilization of IgG molecules via their Fc region</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e5b132f5-2e17-46ba-af15-804cd1812ee1" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e5b132f5-2e17-46ba-af15-804cd1812ee1">Affi-Gel 102</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Affinity coupling of ligands with &ndash;COOH groups via EDAC coupling chemistry</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="6" valign="top"><b>Hydroxyapatite and Fluoroapatite Chromatography Media</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1">CHT&trade; Type I</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C, MPC</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Antibody purification (higher capacity than Type II); virus purification/removal; DNA purification/removal; aggregate and endotoxin removal; Fab purification</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=5ded4ec5-ff5a-47b7-bf10-07253005c83f" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=5ded4ec5-ff5a-47b7-bf10-07253005c83f">CHT Type II</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Antibody purification; removal of albumin from feedstream; Fab purification</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f6456568-f543-48d2-a210-b727ab3137e8" mce_href="/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f6456568-f543-48d2-a210-b727ab3137e8">CFT&trade;</a></td> <td valign="top">B, C</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">Similar properties to CHT but exhibits greater stability in the lower pH range (5.5); suitable for Fab purification</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=ea60717e-e888-4b44-ac03-61600278c77c" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=ea60717e-e888-4b44-ac03-61600278c77c">Bio-Gel HT</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Purification of proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules; crystalline hydroxyapatite less mechanically stable than CHT (ceramic hydroxyapatite)</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=57f66f33-143c-402c-bde8-8cbd9ceebdb4" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=57f66f33-143c-402c-bde8-8cbd9ceebdb4">Bio-Gel HTP</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Similar to Bio-Gel HT but in powder form</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="/evportal/destination/commerce/sku_detail?productID=130-0520" mce_href="/evportal/destination/commerce/sku_detail?productID=130-0520">DNA grade Bio-Gel HTP</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+++</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top">Similar to Bio-Gel HTP with smaller particle size; selectivity for dsDNA; separation of ss- and dsDNA</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="6" valign="top"><b>Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Media</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=93c352ba-b394-42c3-afbc-9feb0680bfe8" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=93c352ba-b394-42c3-afbc-9feb0680bfe8">Macro-Prep Methyl</a></td> <td valign="top">B</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">++++</td> <td valign="top">+</td> <td valign="top">Separation of proteins based on relative hydrophobicity; pH stability 1&ndash;10</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=cb6d6b83-75d6-4ff4-9e2e-6c698ec852a6" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=cb6d6b83-75d6-4ff4-9e2e-6c698ec852a6">Macro-Prep<br />t-butyl</a></td> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top">B</td> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top">++++</td> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top">++++</td> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top">+</td> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top">Separation of proteins based on relative hydrophobicity; pH stability 1&ndash;10</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="caption">* B, bottle; C, cartridge (1 ml or 5 ml); GC, gravity column; SC, spin column; HPLC, high-pressure column; MPC, medium-pressure column.<br /> ** +, low suitability; ++, moderate suitability; +++, suitable; ++++, high suitability.</p> <h2 class="descHeader">Prepacked Analytical-Scale Chromatography Media Cartridges by Application</h2> <table class="pd_table" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="bordertop borderbttm" valign="bottom"><b>Application / Media</b></td> <td class="bordertop borderbttm" valign="bottom"><b>Media Type</b></td> <td class="bordertop borderbttm" valign="bottom"><b>Chemistry</b></td> <td class="bordertop borderbttm" valign="bottom"><b>Capacity</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top:1px solid #000;" mce_style="border-top:1px solid #000;" colspan="4" valign="top"><b>Protein and Plasmid Purification</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=963aeae1-7233-47c2-bd22-88dda61a39b1" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=963aeae1-7233-47c2-bd22-88dda61a39b1">Macro-Prep High Q</a></td> <td valign="top">Strong anion exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;N<sup>+</sup>(CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub></td> <td valign="top">&ge;37 mg BSA</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=9f94b8bc-4b23-48da-b60b-b2b8570cabb9" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=9f94b8bc-4b23-48da-b60b-b2b8570cabb9">UNOsphere Q</a></td> <td valign="top">Strong anion exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;N<sup>+</sup>(CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub></td> <td valign="top">180 mg BSA</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=71b79e5f-6fa5-4983-bc6b-35ee3bb23eb8" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=71b79e5f-6fa5-4983-bc6b-35ee3bb23eb8">UNOsphere S</a></td> <td valign="top">Strong anion exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;SO<sub>3</sub><sup>&ndash;</sup></td> <td valign="top">60 mg human IgG</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b67f362d-de39-4eee-9b66-775834614dd2" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b67f362d-de39-4eee-9b66-775834614dd2">Macro-Prep DEAE</a></td> <td valign="top">Weak anion exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;HN<sup>+</sup>(C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>)<sub>2</sub></td> <td valign="top">&gt; 35 mg protein</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=3d0bab7e-2652-4b2b-9ce5-4c699f267e13" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=3d0bab7e-2652-4b2b-9ce5-4c699f267e13">UNOsphere Rapid S</a></td> <td valign="top">Strong anion exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;SO<sub>3</sub><sup>&ndash;</sup></td> <td valign="top">Human IgG: 60 mg/ml*</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7238621e-1bd4-4c6a-b8f2-0778db56b346" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7238621e-1bd4-4c6a-b8f2-0778db56b346">CFT ceramic fluoroapatite</a></td> <td valign="top">Fluoroapatite</td> <td valign="top">Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>F<sub>2</sub></td> <td valign="top">Lysozyme: 14&ndash;21.5 mg/g</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1">CHT ceramic hydroxyapatite</a></td> <td valign="top">Hydroxyapatite</td> <td valign="top">Ca<sub>5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>OH<sub>2</sub></td> <td valign="top">Human IgG: 25&ndash;60 mg/ml*</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="4" valign="top"><b>Protein Purification</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=L2DCMZ15" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=L2DCMZ15">Nuvia S</a></td> <td valign="top">Strong cation exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;SO<sub>3</sub><sup>&ndash;</sup></td> <td valign="top">110 mg/ml IgG</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=24884a41-3f11-47f4-a4b5-6b8d6d408ae7" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=24884a41-3f11-47f4-a4b5-6b8d6d408ae7">Macro-Prep High S</a></td> <td valign="top">Strong cation exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;SO<sub>3</sub><sup>&ndash;</sup></td> <td valign="top">&ge;49 mg human IgG</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=3d0bab7e-2652-4b2b-9ce5-4c699f267e13" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=3d0bab7e-2652-4b2b-9ce5-4c699f267e13">UNOsphere Rapid S</a></td> <td valign="top">Strong cation exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;SO<sub>3</sub><sup>&ndash;</sup></td> <td valign="top">Human IgG: 60 mg/ml*</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7238621e-1bd4-4c6a-b8f2-0778db56b346" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7238621e-1bd4-4c6a-b8f2-0778db56b346">CFT ceramic fluoroapatite</a></td> <td valign="top">Fluoroapatite</td> <td valign="top">Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>F<sub>2</sub></td> <td valign="top">Lysozyme: 14&ndash;21.5 mg/g</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1">CHT ceramic hydroxyapatite</a></td> <td valign="top">Hydroxyapatite</td> <td valign="top">Ca<sub>5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>OH<sub>2</sub></td> <td valign="top">Human IgG: 25&ndash;60 mg/ml*</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="4" valign="top"><b>IgG Purification</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f9236901-b45f-4abb-8bca-54809e6f2dd8" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=f9236901-b45f-4abb-8bca-54809e6f2dd8">DEAE Affi-Gel Blue</a></td> <td valign="top">Affinity</td> <td valign="top">Cibacron Blue<br /> F3GA and DEAE</td> <td valign="top">0.2&ndash;1.0 ml serum</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="4" valign="top"><b>Antibody Purification</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=L2DCMZ15" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=L2DCMZ15">Nuvia S</a></td> <td valign="top">Strong cation exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;SO<sub>3</sub><sup>&ndash;</sup></td> <td valign="top">110 mg/ml IgG</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=8d9b6d24-0bae-463c-aed3-4e70f4d98861" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=8d9b6d24-0bae-463c-aed3-4e70f4d98861">Affi-Prep protein A</a></td> <td valign="top">Affinity</td> <td valign="top">Protein A</td> <td valign="top">8&ndash;10 mg mouse monoclonal IgG<sub>1</sub><br /> 16&ndash;23 mg human IgG</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1">CHT ceramic<br /> hydroxyapatite Type I</a>,<br />40 &micro;m</td> <td valign="top">Hydroxyapatite</td> <td valign="top">Ca<sub>5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>OH<sub>2</sub></td> <td valign="top">25&ndash;60 mg human IgG</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=5ded4ec5-ff5a-47b7-bf10-07253005c83f" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=5ded4ec5-ff5a-47b7-bf10-07253005c83f">CHT ceramic<br /> hydroxyapatite Type II</a>,<br />40 &micro;m</td> <td valign="top">Hydroxyapatite</td> <td valign="top">Ca<sub>5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>OH<sub>2</sub></td> <td valign="top">15&ndash;25 mg human IgG</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7238621e-1bd4-4c6a-b8f2-0778db56b346" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7238621e-1bd4-4c6a-b8f2-0778db56b346">CFT ceramic fluoroapatite</a></td> <td valign="top">Fluoroapatite</td> <td valign="top">Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>F<sub>2</sub></td> <td valign="top">Lysozyme: 14&ndash;21.5 mg/g</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e83abc43-ee22-4152-bdc7-7a3c021247b9" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e83abc43-ee22-4152-bdc7-7a3c021247b9">UNOsphere SUPrA</a></td> <td valign="top">Affinity</td> <td valign="top">rProtein A</td> <td valign="top">Human IgG: 30 mg/ml*</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="4" valign="top"><b>Affinity-Tagged Protein Purification</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e54ab03c-d281-4e6b-aa0d-193b7737626d" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e54ab03c-d281-4e6b-aa0d-193b7737626d">Profinity IMAC</a></td> <td valign="top">Affinity</td> <td valign="top">Iminodiacetic acid</td> <td valign="top">&ge;15 mg recombinant<br /> protein tagged with hisidine residues</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6ab42e5f-871c-4d64-8bec-ff20c7615ccf" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6ab42e5f-871c-4d64-8bec-ff20c7615ccf">Profinia GST</a></td> <td valign="top">Affinity</td> <td valign="top">Glutathione</td> <td valign="top">&ge;10 mg recombinant<br /> GST-tagged protein</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="4" valign="top"><b>Desalting, Buffer Exchange</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=4b0550d0-51b7-4008-8722-dcffe095676b" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=4b0550d0-51b7-4008-8722-dcffe095676b">Bio-Gel P-6</a></td> <td valign="top">Gel filtration</td> <td valign="top">Polyacrylamide</td> <td valign="top">10&ndash;22% CV</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="4" valign="top"><b>Purification of Serum Proteins, Enzymes</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=4d1854d4-ce76-4696-b63c-68bd767d02a8" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=4d1854d4-ce76-4696-b63c-68bd767d02a8">Affi-Gel Blue</a></td> <td valign="top">Affinity Cibacron Blue</td> <td valign="top">Cibacron Blue<br /> F3GA</td> <td valign="top">0.2 ml serum<br /> 11 mg albumin</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bordertop" colspan="4" valign="top"><b>Monoclonal Antibody Purification</b></td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=L2DCMZ15" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=L2DCMZ15">Nuvia S</a></td> <td valign="top">Strong cation exchange</td> <td valign="top">&ndash;SO<sub>3</sub><sup>&ndash;</sup></td> <td valign="top">110 mg/ml IgG</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e83abc43-ee22-4152-bdc7-7a3c021247b9" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e83abc43-ee22-4152-bdc7-7a3c021247b9">UNOsphere SUPrA</a></td> <td valign="top">Affinity</td> <td valign="top">rProtein A</td> <td valign="top">Human IgG: 30 mg/ml*</td> </tr> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=7b9e4566-4a07-482a-8082-62dfcb1dd0b1">CHT Type I, 40 &micro;m</a></td> <td valign="top">Hydroxyapatite</td> <td valign="top">Ca<sub>5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>OH<sub>2</sub></td> <td valign="top">Human IgG: 25&ndash;60 mg/ml</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=9f94b8bc-4b23-48da-b60b-b2b8570cabb9" mce_href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=9f94b8bc-4b23-48da-b60b-b2b8570cabb9">UNOsphere Q</a></td> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top">Strong cation exchange</td> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top">&ndash;N<sup>+</sup>(CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub></td> <td class="borderbttm" valign="top">BSA 180 mg/ml*</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="caption">* Binding capacity based on bulk media; check individual instruction manuals for run conditions and specifications.</p> --> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Karen Moss Types of Chromatography 12/09/13 11:58 AM 12/11/23 12:21 AM AE,AI,AL,AM,AR,AT,AU,AZ,BA,BD,BE,BF,BG,BH,BN,BO,BR,BW,CA,CH,CL,CM,CN,CO,CR,CY,CZ,DE,DK,DO,DZ,EC,EE,EG,EH,ER,ES,ET,FI,FM,FO,FR,GA,GE,GF,GH,GP,GR,GT,GU,HK,HN,HR,HT,HU,ID,IE,IL,IN,IS,IT,JM,JO,JP,KE,KH,KR,KW,KZ,LB,LI,LK,LT,LU,LV,MA,MD,MG,MK,ML,MO,MQ,MS,MT,MU,MX,MY,NG,NI,NL,NO,NP,NZ,OM,PA,PE,PF,PG,PH,PK,PL,PR,PS,PT,PW,PY,QA,RO,RS,RU,SA,SB,SE,SG,SI,SK,SN,ST,SV,TG,TH,TN,TO,TR,TT,TW,TZ,UA,UG,UK,US,UY,UZ,VA,VE,VU,XK,YE,ZA en LSR /LSR/Technologies/Chromatography N 0
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