Low-Pressure Chromatography

Print

Overview

Chromatography systems are often defined by their pressure characteristics. Common acronyms like LP or HPLC are used to refer to low-pressure and high-pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. Systems that operate at pressures <50 psi (~3 bar) are categorized as low-pressure chromatography systems. Low-pressure chromatography is often used for simple protein separations that do not require high resolution. Low-pressure systems range from basic to semi-automated and can be equipped with gradient capabilities, detectors, valves, and fraction collectors.

This section describes low-pressure chromatography systems, their advantages, general considerations, setup and flow path, and provides some answers to common questions.

Related Topics: Medium Pressure Chromatography Systems and Gravity Chromatography.

 

Applications of Low-Pressure Chromatography

Low-pressure chromatography systems are ideal for the purification of recombinant tagged proteins and work with most prepacked columns. Bio-Rad offers a suite of products for low- pressure chromatography, including the BioLogic™ LP chromatography system (low pressure chromatography systems), Profinia™ protein purification system (affinity chromatography protein purification system), Econo™ gradient pump kits and the Model EP-1 Econo™ pump.

If you would like to determine the kind of purification system best suited for your needs, use our chromatography system configurator.

 

Advantages of Low-Pressure Chromatography

Simplicity
Low-pressure chromatography systems are inherently simpler to use, easier to maintain, less prone to leaking, and the design of the pump allows for quick and easy priming. Many of the fluidics connections are quick-release such as luer fittings. The tubing is often silicone rubber which is easy to cut and piece together with barbed fittings. For pressures >25 psi, tubing ties or clamps are recommended on the barbed fittings.

Siphon strength
The design advantage of low-pressure chromatography system pumps allows liquid to be drawn up, or siphoned up, significant heights. This is especially useful when the buffer or sample is in a large container that cannot be lifted easily onto the bench. Higher pressure systems often use check valves in their pump design and proper operation of these check valves requires a neutral or positive (head) pressure before the pump. Therefore, higher pressure pumps cannot siphon liquid up more than a few inches

Cleanability
Most low-pressure chromatography systems that use peristaltic pumps are quite easy to clean. The tubing can be flushed and autoclaved or simply discarded and replaced.

 

Low-Pressure Chromatography Considerations

Backpressure
Low-pressure chromatography systems can only force liquid along a flow path if the pressure capabilities of the system exceed the resistance or backpressure after the pump. The following factors will increase backpressure and should be considered in the set up and use of the system:

  • Tubing inner diameter and/or connections
  • Lower temperatures like those in cold rooms or refrigerators. Low temperature increases the viscosity of the solvent or buffer and thereby increases the backpressure. This will be more pronounced with buffers containing a high concentration of dissolved salts (e.g. 1M NaCl)
  • Certain buffer gradients
  • Smaller beads or lower porosity in the chromatography media

Pulsation
Pumps (such as peristaltic pumps) that produce lower pressure flows can often produce pressure pulsations as well. In general, pulsations will not adversely affect separations at lower pressure. Some exceptions are:

  • Small bubbles present in the detector flow cells. Bubbles can expand and contract with the pressure pulsations causing changes in the UV and/or conductivity signals which might look like interference or 'ghost' peaks
  • Sample volume is large and highly concentrated. Pressure pulsations can cause mixing within the flow path which can result in precipitated protein
  • High resolution size exclusion (gel filtration) purification. Size exclusion relies on a stable flow rate and consistent rate of diffusion into and out of the pores of the chromatography media. Pulsations can be disruptive to this process
 

Low-Pressure Chromatography Setup and Flowpath

Low-pressure chromatography systems follow a simple flow path: buffer reservoir to pump, to injection valve, to column, to UV detector, to conductivity monitor, to pH monitor, to fraction collector or outlet valve. A common variation of low pressure systems is to use the buffer inlet to manually load sample directly through the pump. This is especially useful if the sample is in a large, dilute volume. As mentioned above, the tubing and pumps used in low pressure chromatography are easy to clean or replace so clogging the pump and cross contamination are not a concern. Bio-Rad offers a suite of options for low pressure chromatography from the Econo Gradient System to a fully featured BioLogic LP System.

Low-pressure chromatography system setup and flowpath.

 
MWHBAYLPT [x-forwarded-proto] = [https] [accept-language] = [zh-cn] [x-forwarded-port] = [443] [x-forwarded-for] = [106.38.241.73, 10.232.19.69] [accept] = [*/*] [if-modified-since] = [Mon, 01 Oct 2018 21:13:46 GMT] [seourl] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/low-pressure-chromatography] [x-amzn-trace-id] = [Root=1-5c1649d0-6f5f4580bd7fac143609b10e] [x-forwarded-server] = [lsds-prod-s.br.aws-livesite.io] [x-forwarded-host] = [www.bio-rad.com] [x-query-string] = [ID=MWHBAYLPT] [host] = [10.232.1.21:1776] [x-request-uri] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/low-pressure-chromatography] [connection] = [Keep-Alive] [accept-encoding] = [gzip,deflate] [user-agent] = [Sogou web spider/4.0(+http://www.sogou.com/docs/help/webmasters.htm#07)] AppTech/AppTechDetails pageStyleKey internet/solutions_sub applications-technologies/low-pressure-chromatography LSR MWHBAYLPT Low Pressure Chromatography Systems Low-Pressure Chromatography /webroot/web/html/lsr/solutions/technologies/chromatography <p>Chromatography systems are often defined by their pressure characteristics. Common acronyms like LP or HPLC are used to refer to low-pressure and high-pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. Systems that operate at pressures &lt;50 psi (~3 bar) are categorized as low-pressure chromatography systems. Low-pressure chromatography is often used for simple protein separations that do not require high resolution. Low-pressure systems range from basic to semi-automated and can be equipped with gradient capabilities, detectors, valves, and fraction collectors.</p> <p>This section describes low-pressure chromatography systems, their advantages, general considerations, setup and flow path, and provides some answers to common questions.</p> <p><strong> Related Topics:</strong> <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=MWHBD3HYP">Medium Pressure Chromatography Systems</a> and <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=MWHB8S4EH">Gravity Chromatography</a>.</p> Applications of Low-Pressure Chromatography <p>Low-pressure chromatography systems are ideal for the purification of recombinant tagged proteins and work with most prepacked columns. Bio-Rad offers a suite of products for low- pressure chromatography, including the <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6098d875-59ba-47d7-a220-cbea7046dad4">BioLogic&trade; LP chromatography system</a> (low pressure chromatography systems), <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=ca39ced8-addd-4ebf-9eed-3afb6850cd73">Profinia&trade; protein purification system</a> (affinity chromatography protein purification system), <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=36107678-29f6-4cc2-958d-1ac0fa2ab40a">Econo&trade; gradient pump kits</a> and the <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6ee41e9b-5ac5-449c-ae7d-578dca8ed6cf">Model EP-1 Econo&trade; pump</a>.</p> <p>If you would like to determine the kind of purification system best suited for your needs, use our <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/webroot/web/movies/lsr/products/chromatography/configurator/design_slides.html" target="_blank">chromatography system configurator</a>.</p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Advantages of Low-Pressure Chromatography <p><strong> Simplicity</strong><br /> Low-pressure chromatography systems are inherently simpler to use, easier to maintain, less prone to leaking, and the design of the pump allows for quick and easy priming. Many of the fluidics connections are quick-release such as luer fittings. The tubing is often silicone rubber which is easy to cut and piece together with barbed fittings. For pressures &gt;25 psi, tubing ties or clamps are recommended on the barbed fittings.</p> <p><strong> Siphon strength</strong><br /> The design advantage of low-pressure chromatography system pumps allows liquid to be drawn up, or siphoned up, significant heights. This is especially useful when the buffer or sample is in a large container that cannot be lifted easily onto the bench. Higher pressure systems often use check valves in their pump design and proper operation of these check valves requires a neutral or positive (head) pressure before the pump. Therefore, higher pressure pumps cannot siphon liquid up more than a few inches</p> <p><strong> Cleanability</strong><br /> Most low-pressure chromatography systems that use peristaltic pumps are quite easy to clean. The tubing can be flushed and autoclaved or simply discarded and replaced.</p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Low-Pressure Chromatography Considerations <p><strong> Backpressure</strong><br /> Low-pressure chromatography systems can only force liquid along a flow path if the pressure capabilities of the system exceed the resistance or backpressure after the pump. The following factors will increase backpressure and should be considered in the set up and use of the system:</p> <ul> <li>Tubing inner diameter and/or connections</li> <li>Lower temperatures like those in cold rooms or refrigerators. Low temperature increases the viscosity of the solvent or buffer and thereby increases the backpressure. This will be more pronounced with buffers containing a high concentration of dissolved salts (e.g. 1M NaCl)</li> <li>Certain buffer gradients</li> <li>Smaller beads or lower porosity in the chromatography media</li> </ul> <p><strong> Pulsation</strong><br /> Pumps (such as peristaltic pumps) that produce lower pressure flows can often produce pressure pulsations as well. In general, pulsations will not adversely affect separations at lower pressure. Some exceptions are:</p> <ul> <li>Small bubbles present in the detector flow cells. Bubbles can expand and contract with the pressure pulsations causing changes in the UV and/or conductivity signals which might look like interference or 'ghost' peaks</li> <li>Sample volume is large and highly concentrated. Pressure pulsations can cause mixing within the flow path which can result in precipitated protein</li> <li>High resolution size exclusion (gel filtration) purification. Size exclusion relies on a stable flow rate and consistent rate of diffusion into and out of the pores of the chromatography media. Pulsations can be disruptive to this process</li> </ul> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Low-Pressure Chromatography Setup and Flowpath <p>Low-pressure chromatography systems follow a simple flow path: buffer reservoir to pump, to injection valve, to column, to UV detector, to conductivity monitor, to pH monitor, to fraction collector or outlet valve. A common variation of low pressure systems is to use the buffer inlet to manually load sample directly through the pump. This is especially useful if the sample is in a large, dilute volume. As mentioned above, the tubing and pumps used in low pressure chromatography are easy to clean or replace so clogging the pump and cross contamination are not a concern. Bio-Rad offers a suite of options for low pressure chromatography from the <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=36107678-29f6-4cc2-958d-1ac0fa2ab40a">Econo Gradient System</a> to a fully featured <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6098d875-59ba-47d7-a220-cbea7046dad4">BioLogic LP System</a>.</p> <p><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/lab_scale_chromatography/chromatography/technology_detail/chromt16_img1.jpg" alt="" width="300" height="401" /></p> <p class="caption"><strong>Low-pressure chromatography system setup and flowpath.</strong></p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> 268478129_1327017137 268478130_1327017443 268478131_1327017791 268478132_1327018064 Life Science Research/Products/Chromatography/Instrument Systems, Components &amp; Accessories/Low-Pressure Chromatography Systems/BioLogic LP System ->MT::6098d875-59ba-47d7-a220-cbea7046dad4##Life Science Research/Products/Chromatography/Instrument Systems, Components &amp; Accessories/Low-Pressure Chromatography Systems/Econo Gradient Pump Kits ->MT::36107678-29f6-4cc2-958d-1ac0fa2ab40a##Life Science Research/Products/Chromatography/Instrument Systems, Components &amp; Accessories/Low-Pressure Chromatography Systems/Model EP-1 Econo Pump ->MT::6ee41e9b-5ac5-449c-ae7d-578dca8ed6cf## Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Protein Electrophoresis/Protein Sample Preparation ->MTS::LUSP108WI##Life Science Research/Solutions/Applications/Automated Electrophoresis and Analysis ->MTS::LUSQXB15##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Protein Electrophoresis ->MTS::LUSOVO47B##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Western Blotting ->MTS::LUSPPAKG4##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Imaging and Analysis ->MTS::LUSQC6MNI##Life Science Research/Solutions/Applications/Protein Interaction Analysis ->MTS::LUSLTJE8Z##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Surface Plasmon Resonance ->MTS::LUSM664EH## Karen Moss Low Pressure Chromatography Systems 11/20/13 01:56 PM 11/20/23 02:41 PM AE,AI,AL,AM,AR,AT,AU,AZ,BA,BD,BE,BF,BG,BH,BN,BO,BR,BW,CA,CH,CL,CM,CN,CO,CR,CY,CZ,DE,DK,DO,DZ,EC,EE,EG,EH,ER,ES,ET,FI,FM,FO,FR,GA,GE,GF,GH,GP,GR,GT,GU,HK,HN,HR,HT,HU,ID,IE,IL,IN,IS,IT,JM,JO,JP,KE,KH,KR,KW,KZ,LB,LI,LK,LT,LU,LV,MA,MD,MG,MK,ML,MO,MQ,MS,MT,MU,MX,MY,NG,NI,NL,NO,NP,NZ,OM,PA,PE,PF,PG,PH,PK,PL,PR,PS,PT,PW,PY,QA,RO,RS,RU,SA,SB,SE,SG,SI,SK,SN,ST,SV,TG,TH,TN,TO,TR,TT,TW,TZ,UA,UG,UK,US,UY,UZ,VA,VE,VU,XK,YE,ZA en LSR /LSR/Technologies/Chromatography N 0
Sign Up for Bio-Rad Updates!
Enter your email address below to receive your choice of the latest news, promotions, and more.
MWHBAYLPT [x-forwarded-proto] = [http] [x-forwarded-port] = [80] [x-forwarded-for] = [3.80.177.176, 10.232.19.69] [accept] = [text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8] [seourl] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/low-pressure-chromatography] [x-amzn-trace-id] = [Root=1-5c165581-8706c35667309c443a0f6c02] [x-forwarded-server] = [lsds-prod-s.br.aws-livesite.io] [x-forwarded-host] = [www.bio-rad.com] [x-query-string] = [ID=MWHBAYLPT] [host] = [10.232.1.21:1776] [x-request-uri] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/low-pressure-chromatography] [connection] = [Keep-Alive] [accept-encoding] = [gzip] [user-agent] = [CCBot/2.0 (https://commoncrawl.org/faq/)] AppTech/AppTechDetails pageStyleKey applications-technologies/low-pressure-chromatography LSR 03/26/14 02:17 PM en_US true internet/generic 2018-10-10 22:22:20 /default/main/bio-rad/STAGING 1385504243813 US templatedata/internet/generic/data/en_US/GNL/page_generic_footer_b2c_1385505294_US.xml page_generic_footer_b2c /default/main/bio-rad/WORKAREA/default jc7v8okm 2017-10-27 13:13:40 true Done jc7v8okm templatedata/internet/generic/data/en_US/GNL/page_generic_footer_b2c_1385505294_US.xml GNL N /default/main/bio-rad en_US 11/27/23 02:18 PM 1532127468176 2018-10-10 22:22:20 /default/main/bio-rad/WORKAREA/default/templatedata/internet/generic/data/en_US/GNL/page_generic_footer_b2c_1385505294_US.xml footer-page 1 1385504243813 page_generic_footer_b2c <div class="links"> <h4>Support</h4> <ul> <li><a class="msdsLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/literature-library">MSDS</a></li> <li><a class="cofaLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/_defaultVerticalUrl/support/certificate-of-analysis">Certificate of Analysis</a></li> <li><a class="qcinsertsLink wtclass" href="http://myeinserts.qcnet.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">QC Inserts</a></li> <li><a class="technicalsupportLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/life-science-research/support">Technical Support<br />For Life Science</a></li> <li><a class="expertCSLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/_defaultVerticalUrl/purchase-service-programs/expert-care-service?ID=1383780912356">Expert Care Service</a></li> <li><a class="feedBackLink wtclass linkgeneration" id="feedbackID" href="javascript:void(0)">Feedback</a></li> <li><a class="contactUSLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/contact-us">Contact Us</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="links"> <h4>Ordering</h4> <ul> <li><a id="quickOrderLink" class="quickOrderLink wtclass" name="quickOrderLink" href="javascript:openAjaxOverlay('/evportal/portlets/ordering/quickOrderOverlayContent.jsp?quickorder_location=Footer')">Quick Order</a></li> <li><a class="mybioradLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/my-bio-rad">My Bio-Rad</a></li> <li><a id="footer_orderLink" class="orderhistoryLink wtclass" href="javascript:void(0);">Order History</a></li> <li><a id="footer_quoteLink" href="javascript:void(0);">Quote History</a></li> <li><a class="supplycentersLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/_defaultVerticalUrl/purchase-service-programs/supply-center-program">Supply Centers</a></li> <li><a class="returnpolicyLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="javascript:openAjaxOverlay('/webroot/web/html/returnPolicy-us.html','Return and Refund Policy');">Return and Refund Policy</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="links"> <h4>Our Products</h4> <ul> <li><a class="lsrLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/life-science-research">Life Science Research</a></li> <li><a class="cdLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/clinical-diagnostics">Clinical Diagnostics</a></li> <li><a class="infLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/spectroscopy">Spectroscopy</a></li> <li><a class="psLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/process-separations">Process Separations</a></li> <li><a class="fsLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/food-science">Food Science</a></li> <li><a class="lseLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/education">Life Science Education</a></li> <li><a class="selectionguideLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/featured/en/selection-guides.html">Selection Guides</a></li> <li><a class="featuredproductsLink wtclass" href="/featured/en/featured-products.html">Featured Products</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="links links2"> <h4>Corporate</h4> <ul> <li><a class="aboutbioradLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/corporate/about-bio-rad">About Bio-Rad</a></li> <li><a class="careersLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/corporate/careers">Careers</a></li> <li><a class="irLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/corporate/investor-relations">Investor Relations</a></li> <li><a class="coLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/corporate/community-outreach">Community Outreach</a></li> <li><a class="pteLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/corporate/protecting-environment">Protecting the Environment</a></li> <li><a class="newsroomLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/corporate/newsroom">Newsroom</a></li> </ul> </div> <p> <script type="text/javascript">// <![CDATA[ $(document).ready(function(){ setSterlingUrlsToHtmlHrefVariables(); $('a.linkgeneration').each(function(){ $(this).attr('href', $(this).attr('href').replace('_locale', languageCode + '-' + countryCode.toLowerCase()).replace('_verticalUrl', currentVerticalUrlTitle).replace('_defaultVerticalUrl', defaultVerticalUrlTitle).replace('_feedbackCMSID',feedbackCMSID)); }); var feedbackOverlayUrl = '/bio-rad/Standalone/FeedbackOverlay.page?standalonePage=true'; $("#feedbackID").click(function(){ openAjaxOverlay(feedbackOverlayUrl,"Feedback"); }); }); // ]]></script> <script type="text/javascript">// <![CDATA[ if($.cookie('evCntryLang')){ (function(){"use strict";var e=null,b="4.0.0", n="10740", additional="", t,r,i;try{t=top.document.referer!==""?encodeURIComponent(top.document.referrer.substring(0,2048)):""}catch(o){t=document.referrer!==null?document.referrer.toString().substring(0,2048):""}try{r=window&&window.top&&document.location&&window.top.location===document.location?document.location:window&&window.top&&window.top.location&&""!==window.top.location?window.top.location:document.location}catch(u){r=document.location}try{i=parent.location.href!==""?encodeURIComponent(parent.location.href.toString().substring(0,2048)):""}catch(a){try{i=r!==null?encodeURIComponent(r.toString().substring(0,2048)):""}catch(f){i=""}}var l,c=document.createElement("script"),h=null,p=document.getElementsByTagName("script"),d=Number(p.length)-1,v=document.getElementsByTagName("script")[d];if(typeof l==="undefined"){l=Math.floor(Math.random()*1e17)}h="dx.steelhousemedia.com/spx?"+"dxver="+b+"&shaid="+n+"&tdr="+t+"&plh="+i+"&cb="+l+additional;c.type="text/javascript";c.src=("https:"===document.location.protocol?"https://":"http://")+h;v.parentNode.insertBefore(c,v)})() } // ]]></script> </p> /webroot/web/html footer_page_b2c_en_US.html /webroot/web/html/footer_page_b2c_en_US.html Karen Moss Footer page Footer 03/26/14 02:17 PM 11/27/23 02:18 PM US en GNL /GNL N 0 en-us Home <script type="text/javascript">$(document).ready(function() { $(".footer-nav > a:nth-child(3)").after(" | <a href='javascript:void(0)' id='regionlink'>Web Accessibility</a>"); var region = $("#headlangID .lang strong").html(); $("#regionlink").click(function(){ window.location.replace( "/webroot/web/html/featured/en/web-accessibility.html?Region=" + region );});});</script>Trademarks Site Terms Terms & Conditions Imprint EU Recycle Program Privacy Change Cookie Setting <script type="text/javascript">$(document).ready(function () {$(".links2").append('<style>.social-links-br {float: left;margin-right: 10px;}.social-links-br img {width: 20px;height: 20px;margin-right: 5px}</style><div class="social-links-br"><a class="no-target-style" href="https://www.linkedin.com/company/bio-rad?trk=top_nav_home" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/linkedin_round_40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad LinkedIn"></a><a class="no-target-style" href="https://www.youtube.com/user/BioRadLifeScience" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/youtube-icon-rnd-40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad YouTube"></a><a class="no-target-style" href="https://twitter.com/BioRadLifeSci" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/twitter_round_40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad Twitter"></a><a class="no-target-style" href="https://www.facebook.com/biorad/" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/facebook-icon-rnd-40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad Facebook"></a><a class="no-target-style" href="https://www.instagram.com/bioradlabs/" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/instagram-icon-rnd-40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad Instagram"></a></div>');});</script>Copyright &copy; {0} Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. This page was last edited on {0} True GTM-MJ2DN2S us US en LSR life-science-research life-science-research /prd/en/US/direct/biorad?ts=1&cmd=OrdersWorkspaceDisplay /prd/en/US/direct/biorad?ts=1&cmd=QuotesWorkspaceDisplay /prd/en/US/direct/biorad?ts=1&cmd=InvoiceWorkspaceDisplay&_Tab=Invoice false false true false true true 1040988879 LHsYCOu_wQMQz_Ww8AM window.google_tag_params true 272-THL-329 username CartID_ WT_FPC <script type="text/javascript">$.ajax({url: document.location.protocol + '//munchkin.marketo.net/munchkin.js',dataType: 'script',cache: true,success: function() {Munchkin.init('044-CBN-599');}});</script> <script type="text/javascript" src="/evportal/framework/skins/evolution/js/proxyMunchkin.js"></script> 2018