Introduction to Transfection

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Overview

Transfection generally refers to the introduction of foreign DNA into bacterial and/or mammalian cells. Transfection is an important tool used in studies investigating gene function and the modulation of gene expression, thus contributing to the advancement of basic cellular research, drug discovery, and target validation. This section provides an overview of different transfection methods, transfection workflow, factors affecting transfection efficient, and protocols.

Related Topics: Posttransfection Analysis of Cells, Instrument-Based Transfection Methods, and Chemical and Viral Transfection.

 

Transfection Methods

Transfection can be accomplished using chemical, biological, or physical methods. Common methods include electroporation, the use of a virus vector, lipofection, and biolistics. Many types of genetic material, including plasmid DNA, siRNA, proteins, dyes, and antibodies, may be transfected using any of these methods. However, a single method cannot be applied to all types of cells; transfection efficiencies and cytotoxicity may vary dramatically and depend on the method, cell type being utilized, and types of experiments being performed. Therefore, to obtain high efficiencies, all relevant factors should be considered for planning and selecting the appropriate transfection method.

Method Function Recommended Cells Products
Electroporation Nucleic acids or other molecules are introduced into cells by creating transient pores in the plasma membrane using an electric pulse Eukaryotic cells (primary, stem cells), prokaryotic cells (bacteria, yeast), plant protoplasts Gene Pulser Xcell™ electroporation system

Gene Pulser MXcell™ electroporation system

MicroPulser™ electroporator
Lipid-mediated Uses lipids to cause a cell to absorb nucleic acids; transfer of genetic material into the cell takes place via liposomes, which are vesicles that can merge with the cell membrane Immortal cells, adherent (attached), or suspension cells TransFectin lipid reagent

SiLentFect lipid reagent
Biolistic particle delivery Delivery of nucleic acids into cells via high velocity nucleic acid-coated microparticles Plant, primary cells, tissue, and in vivo applications Helios™ gene gun

PDS-1000/He™ biolistic particle delivery system
Viral vector (for example, retrovirus, lentivirus, adenovirus, or adeno-associated viruses) Uses viral vectors to deliver nucleic acids into cells Attached adherent cells, stem cells, primary cells  
 

Transfection Efficiency

Successful transfection is usually measured in terms of transfection efficiency and cell viability — the higher the efficiency and viability, the better the transfection. Several important factors, such as the DNA quantity and quality, cell type, cell health, and transfection method (as stated above) affect transfection results. Transfection efficiency, for example, varies greatly with the cell type and its physiological condition prior to transfection. Ideally, the cells should be actively growing, healthy, and free of contamination.

Another way to present factors impacting transfection results is to consider the entire transfection workflow and the series of key sub-experiments it comprises. Each sub-experiment can significantly affect efficiency and viability. The typical workflow for a transfection experiment is as follows:

Transfection Workflow

Typical workflow for a transfection experiment.

The following table summarizes the factors to consider for efficient transfection:

Cell Health

Cells should be grown in medium appropriate for the cell line, supplemented with serum or growth factors as needed for viability

  • Contaminated cells and media (e.g., contaminated with yeast or Mycoplasma) should never be used for transfection
  • Make sure the medium is fresh if any components are chemically unstable, e.g., thiamine
  • Medium lacking necessary factors, such as serum, can negatively affect cell growth
  • Incubate cells at 37°C supplied with CO2 at the correct percentage (5–10%) and kept at 100% relative humidity
Confluency

Transfect cells at 40–80% confluency (cell type dependent)

  • Too few cells will cause cell cultures to grow poorly without cell-to-cell contact
  • Too many cells results in contact inhibition, making cells resistant to the uptake of DNA and other macromolecules
  • Actively dividing cells take up DNA better than quiescent cells
Passages of DNA

Number of Passages (cell type dependent)

  • Number of passages should be low (<50)
  • Number of passages for cells used in a variety of experiments should be consistent
  • Cell characteristics can change over time with immortalized cell lines and cells may not respond to the same transfection conditions.
  • Cells may not respond to the same transfection conditions after repeated passages

DNA Quality and Quantity

  • Use high-quality plasmid DNA for transfections that is free of proteins, RNA, and chemicals
  • DNA is typically suspended in sterile water or TE buffer to a final concentration of 0.2–1 mg/ml
  • The optimal amount of DNA to use in the transfection will vary widely and depend on the type of DNA, transfection reagent/method, target cell line, and number of cells
Time/Serum

Time

  • Optimal transfection time depends on the cell line, transfection method, and molecule transfected
  • Transfection times vary from 30 min to 4 hr (or may require overnight incubation based on the reagent used); some reagents do not require either media changes or additions
  • Cell morphology is monitored during the transfection interval because some cell lines lose viability during this period, e.g., cells maintained in serum-free medium
  • In addition to saving time, a shortened transfection time may significantly reduce the risk of cell death during the transfection procedure

Serum

  • Transfection protocols often require serum-free conditions for optimal performance because serum can interfere with many commercially available transfection reagents
 

Transfection Protocol Library

The transfection protocol online library contains protocols obtained from the literature, developed by Bio-Rad scientists, or submitted by scientists like you. Browse protocols to view our library and find your starting point or submit a protocol by clicking the proper technology.

 

Further Reading

Belyansteva IA (2009). Helios Gene Gun-mediated transfection of the inner ear sensory epithelium. Methods Mol Biol 493, 103–123. PMID: 18839344

Fujiki R et al. (2009). GlcNAcylation of a histone methyltransferase in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis. Nature 459, 455–459. PMID: 19377461

Helledie T et al. (2008). A simple and reliable electroporation method for human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev 17, 837–848. PMID: 18752428

Hockemeyer D et al. (2009). Efficient targeting of expressed and silent genes in human ESCs and iPSCs using zinc-finger nucleases. Nat Biotechnol  27, 851–857. PMID: 19680244

Huang B et al. (2008). RNA interference-mediated in vivo silencing of fas ligand as a strategy for the enhancement of DNA vaccine potency. Hum Gene Ther 19, 763–773. PMID: 18627219

Shimamura K et al. (2007). Generation of secondary small interfering RNA in cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous RNA silencing in tobacco. Plant Mol Biol  63, 803–813. PMID: 17225952

Su L et al. (2009). Neural stem cell differentiation is mediated by integrin beta4 in vitro. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41, 916–924. PMID: 18834954

Tseng CN et al. (2013). A method to identify RNA A-to-I editing targets using I-specific cleavage and exon array analysis. Mol Cell Probes 7, 38–45. PMID: 22960667

 

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Literature
Number Description Download
5448 MicroPulser Electroporator Flier, Rev A Click to download
5542 Electroporation Systems Brochure, Rev A Click to download
5582 Gene Pulser Electroporation Buffer Product Information Sheet, Rev A Click to download
5399 Gene Pulser siRNA Electroporation References, Rev A Click to download
5445 Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation System Flier, Rev A Click to download
5598 Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System Flier, Rev B Click to download
1908 Electroporation Cuvette Flier, Rev B Click to download
5553 Gene Modulation Workflow Brochure, Rev B Click to download
5554 Gene Silencing | RNAi Workflow Brochure, Rev B Click to download
5924 Stem Cell Basics for Life Science Researchers Brochure, Rev A Click to download
1349 Electroporation of T-Cell and Macrophage Cell Lines Click to download
1365 Introducing Proteins Into Cells by Electroporation Click to download
1345 Electroporation of Primary Bone Marrow Cells Click to download
1355 Production of Hybridomas by Electrofusion Click to download
5858 The Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System Provides Reproducible Results in Electroporation Plates and Cuvettes With the Same Protocol, Rev A Click to download
5641 The Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System Delivers Consistent Results Required for Optimizing Delivery Protocols, Rev A Click to download
5603 Optimization of Electroporation Using Gene Pulser Electroporation Buffer and the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5622 Optimization of Electroporation Conditions With the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5686 Optimization of Electroporation Conditions for Jurkat Cells Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5687 Transfection of Mammalian Cells Using Preset Protocols on the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5720 Transfection of Neuroblastoma Cell Lines Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5704 Electroporation Conditions for Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5733 Transfection of Chinese Hamster Ovary-Derived DG44 Cells Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5774 Delivery of siRNA by Electroporation Into Primary Human Neutrophils Using the Gene Pulser MXcell System, Rev A Click to download
5778 Electroporation Parameters for Transfection of HL-60 Leukocytic Cell Line With siRNA Using the Gene Pulser MXcell System, Rev B Click to download
5823 Electroporation of Primary Murine Mast Cells Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5842 Optimization of Electroporation Conditions for Two Different Burkitt Lymphoma Cell Lines Using the Gene Pulser MXcell System, Rev B Click to download
0108 Simple and Rapid Optimization With Maximum Transfection Efficiency, Rev A Click to download
5860 Analysis of IL-4 Dependent Gene Expression in Namalwa Cells by siRNA Transfection: An Example of Pathway Analysis Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5904 Transfection of Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Electroporation Using the Gene Pulser Mxcell&trade; System, Rev A Click to download
5443 Biolistic Particle Delivery Systems Brochure, Rev A Click to download
5447 Biolistic PDS-1000/He System Flier, Rev A Click to download
5446 Helios Gene Gun System Flier, Rev A Click to download
2051 Transformation of Filamentous Fungi by Microprojectile Bombardment Click to download
2015 Sub-Micron Gold Particles Are Superior to Larger Particles for Efficient Biolistic Transformation of Organelles and Some Cell Types Click to download
2007 Bombardment-Mediated Transformation Methods for Barley Click to download
2087 Biolistic Transfection of Organotypic Brain Slices and Dissociated Cells Click to download
2658 Single-Cell Complementation of Barley <i>mlo</i> Mutants Using a PDS-1000/He Hepta System Click to download
2453 Optimization of Gene Delivery Into Arabidopsis, Tobacco, and Birch Using the Helios Gene Gun System Click to download
1688 Optimization of Biolistic<sup>&reg;</sup> Transformation Using the Helium-Driven PDS-1000/He System Click to download
1689 Comparison of Performance Characteristics of Different Biolistic<sup>&reg;</sup> Devices Click to download
2768 Biolistic Gene Transfer to Generate Transgenic Schistosomes, Rev A Click to download
2433 Transformation of Nematodes With the Helios Gene Gun Click to download
2552 The Gene Gun: Current Applications in Cutaneous Gene Therapy, Rev A Click to download
2531 Inoculation of Viral RNA and cDNA to Potato and Tobacco Plants Using the Helios Gene Gun Click to download
2410 Detection of Reporter Gene Activity in Cell Cultures and Murine Epidermis After Helios<sup>&reg;</sup> Gene Gun-Mediated Particle Bombardment, Rev B Click to download
2726 Delivery of pCMV-S DNA Using the Helios&reg; Gene Gun System Is Superior to Intramuscular Injection in Balb/c Mice Click to download
3105 siLentFect Lipid Reagent Flier, Rev B Click to download
2873 TransFectin Lipid Reagent Brochure, Rev A Click to download
2874 TransFectin Lipid Reagent Flier, Rev B Click to download
3197 Optimization of TransFectin Lipid Reagent-Mediated Transfection for Different Cell Types, Rev A Click to download
3138_015 TransFectin Lipid Reagent Protocol, Human, A459, Lung Carcinoma Click to download
3138_005 TransFectin Lipid Reagent Protocol, Rat, PC12, Pheochromocytoma Click to download
3138_009 TransFectin Lipid Reagent Protocol, Human, 143B, Bone Marrow Osteosarcoma Click to download
5226 Highly Efficient Transfection of Mouse ES Cells With TransFectin Lipid Reagent Click to download
3138_018 TransFectin Lipid Reagent Protocol, Human, HEK 293, Kidney Click to download
3138_017 TransFectin Lipid Reagent Protocol, Human, HEK 293T, Kidney Click to download
5439 Highly Efficient Transfection of a Human Epithelial Cell Line With Chemically Synthesized siRNA Using siLentFECT Lipid Reagent, Rev A Click to download
5370 Transfection of Caco-2 Cells With siRNA Using the siLentFect Lipid Reagent, Rev A Click to download
5807 Beta-Actin Gene Silencing via siRNA and Its Effects on Protein Profiles (Poster), Rev B Click to download
5808 Novel Uses of Microarrays in Detecting Gene Silencing (Poster), Rev A Click to download
6176 Electroporation Systems Overview Click to download
6177 Biolistic Particle Delivery Systems Click to download
6178 Recommended Biolistic System by Cell Types Click to download
6179 Lipid Transfection Reagents Selection Guide Click to download
 
 
LUSONCB9O [x-forwarded-proto] = [http] [x-forwarded-port] = [80] [x-forwarded-for] = [207.46.13.46, 10.232.19.5] [pragma] = [no-cache] [accept] = [*/*] [seourl] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/introduction-transfection] [x-amzn-trace-id] = [Root=1-5ad99b80-46583fc812c04f48fb534d28] [x-forwarded-server] = [lsds-prod-s.br.aws-livesite.io] [x-forwarded-host] = [www.bio-rad.com] [x-query-string] = [ID=LUSONCB9O] [host] = [10.232.17.28:1776] [x-request-uri] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/introduction-transfection] [from] = [bingbot(at)microsoft.com] [connection] = [Keep-Alive] [cache-control] = [no-cache] [accept-encoding] = [gzip, deflate] [user-agent] = [Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; bingbot/2.0; +http://www.bing.com/bingbot.htm)] AppTech/AppTechDetails pageStyleKey internet/solutions_sub applications-technologies/introduction-transfection LSR LUSONCB9O Transfection Introduction to Transfection /webroot/web/html/lsr/solutions/technologies/transfection /webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/gene_expression/transfection/technology_detail/solutions_feature_gxt4_transfection.jpg /webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/gene_expression/technology_thumb/cat_gxt4_transfection_icon.jpg <script type="text/javascript">// <![CDATA[ if ($.browser.msie && $.browser.version < 8) {$("div.methodboxmiddle ul.rightarrowsearch1").css({"margin-left":"-5px"});} // ]]></script> <p>Transfection generally refers to the introduction of foreign DNA into bacterial and/or mammalian cells. Transfection is an important tool used in studies investigating gene function and the modulation of gene expression, thus contributing to the advancement of basic cellular research, drug discovery, and target validation. This section provides an overview of different transfection methods, transfection workflow, factors affecting transfection efficient, and protocols.</p> <p><strong>Related Topics</strong>: <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSOPS84">Posttransfection Analysis of Cells</a>, <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSONV30E">Instrument-Based Transfection Methods</a>, and <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSOOP49">Chemical and Viral Transfection</a>.</p> Transfection Methods <p>Transfection can be accomplished using chemical, biological, or physical methods. Common methods include electroporation, the use of a virus vector, lipofection, and biolistics. Many types of genetic material, including plasmid DNA, siRNA, proteins, dyes, and antibodies, may be transfected using any of these methods. However, a single method cannot be applied to all types of cells; transfection efficiencies and cytotoxicity may vary dramatically and depend on the method, cell type being utilized, and types of experiments being performed. Therefore, to obtain high efficiencies, all relevant factors should be considered for planning and selecting the appropriate transfection method.</p> <table class="pd_table pd_gridlines txttop" border="0"> <tbody> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td><strong>Method</strong></td> <td><strong>Function</strong></td> <td><strong>Recommended Cells</strong></td> <td><strong>Products</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Electroporation</td> <td>Nucleic acids or other molecules are introduced into cells by creating transient pores in the plasma membrane using an electric pulse</td> <td>Eukaryotic cells (primary, stem cells), prokaryotic cells (bacteria, yeast), plant protoplasts</td> <td><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b1a35eb3-d55c-47b3-aaf3-95e4d1d85848">Gene Pulser Xcell&trade; electroporation system</a> <br /><br /> <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=fae0f825-da45-4b02-aa33-73781dda6171">Gene Pulser MXcell&trade; electroporation system</a> <br /><br /> <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=83527990-34fb-4b33-b955-ca53b57bf8b9">MicroPulser&trade; electroporator</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Lipid-mediated</td> <td>Uses lipids to cause a cell to absorb nucleic acids; transfer of genetic material into the cell takes place via liposomes, which are vesicles that can merge with the cell membrane</td> <td>Immortal cells, adherent (attached), or suspension cells</td> <td><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=680dace0-c2a1-451c-ba7f-d15a2294aa52">TransFectin lipid reagent</a> <br /><br /> <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=6860e063-0049-4607-95f9-03cae130b221">SiLentFect lipid reagent</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Biolistic particle delivery</td> <td>Delivery of nucleic acids into cells via high velocity nucleic acid-coated microparticles</td> <td>Plant, primary cells, tissue, and in vivo applications</td> <td><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=42e9d6be-369a-49f8-8fbb-281a0fea6df8">Helios&trade; gene gun</a> <br /><br /> <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=1730e08d-f43a-46ea-b7f3-7b35c04c36eb">PDS-1000/He&trade; biolistic particle delivery system</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Viral vector (for example, retrovirus, lentivirus, adenovirus, or adeno-associated viruses)</td> <td>Uses viral vectors to deliver nucleic acids into cells</td> <td>Attached adherent cells, stem cells, primary cells</td> <td>&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Transfection Efficiency <p>Successful transfection is usually measured in terms of transfection efficiency and cell viability &mdash; the higher the efficiency and viability, the better the transfection. Several important factors, such as the DNA quantity and quality, cell type, cell health, and transfection method (as stated above) affect transfection results. Transfection efficiency, for example, varies greatly with the cell type and its physiological condition prior to transfection. Ideally, the cells should be actively growing, healthy, and free of contamination.</p> <p>Another way to present factors impacting transfection results is to consider the entire transfection workflow and the series of key sub-experiments it comprises. Each sub-experiment can significantly affect efficiency and viability. The typical workflow for a transfection experiment is as follows:</p> <p><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/gene_expression/transfection/technology_detail/gxt4_img1.gif" alt="Transfection Workflow" width="580" height="338" /></p> <p class="caption"><strong>Typical workflow for a transfection experiment.</strong></p> <p>The following table summarizes the factors to consider for efficient transfection:</p> <table class="pd_table pd_gridlines" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>Cell Health</td> <td> <p>Cells should be grown in medium appropriate for the cell line, supplemented with serum or growth factors as needed for viability</p> <ul> <li style="border: 0px;">Contaminated cells and media (e.g., contaminated with yeast or Mycoplasma) should never be used for transfection</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Make sure the medium is fresh if any components are chemically unstable, e.g., thiamine</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Medium lacking necessary factors, such as serum, can negatively affect cell growth</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Incubate cells at 37&deg;C supplied with CO<sub>2</sub> at the correct percentage (5&ndash;10%) and kept at 100% relative humidity</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Confluency</td> <td> <p>Transfect cells at 40&ndash;80% confluency (cell type dependent)</p> <ul> <li style="border: 0px;">Too few cells will cause cell cultures to grow poorly without cell-to-cell contact</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Too many cells results in contact inhibition, making cells resistant to the uptake of DNA and other macromolecules</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Actively dividing cells take up DNA better than quiescent cells</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Passages of DNA</td> <td> <p>Number of Passages (cell type dependent)</p> <ul> <li style="border: 0px;">Number of passages should be low (&lt;50)</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Number of passages for cells used in a variety of experiments should be consistent</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Cell characteristics can change over time with immortalized cell lines and cells may not respond to the same transfection conditions.</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Cells may not respond to the same transfection conditions after repeated passages</li> </ul> <p>DNA Quality and Quantity</p> <ul> <li style="border: 0px;">Use high-quality plasmid DNA for transfections that is free of proteins, RNA, and chemicals</li> <li style="border: 0px;">DNA is typically suspended in sterile water or TE buffer to a final concentration of 0.2&ndash;1 mg/ml</li> <li style="border: 0px;">The optimal amount of DNA to use in the transfection will vary widely and depend on the type of DNA, transfection reagent/method, target cell line, and number of cells</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Time/Serum</td> <td> <p>Time</p> <ul> <li style="border: 0px;">Optimal transfection time depends on the cell line, transfection method, and molecule transfected</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Transfection times vary from 30 min to 4 hr (or may require overnight incubation based on the reagent used); some reagents do not require either media changes or additions</li> <li style="border: 0px;">Cell morphology is monitored during the transfection interval because some cell lines lose viability during this period, e.g., cells maintained in serum-free medium</li> <li style="border: 0px;">In addition to saving time, a shortened transfection time may significantly reduce the risk of cell death during the transfection procedure</li> </ul> <p>Serum</p> <ul> <li style="border: 0px;">Transfection protocols often require serum-free conditions for optimal performance because serum can interfere with many commercially available transfection reagents</li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Transfection Protocol Library <p> <script type="text/javascript">// <![CDATA[ // popupwin function popIt(url,w,h,r){ var mydate = new Date(); wname=''+mydate.getMonth()+mydate.getDate()+mydate.getHours()+mydate.getMinutes()+mydate.getSeconds(); if (w && h && r) { popwin = window.open(url,"popwin"+wname,"height="+h+",width="+w+",status=1,scrollbars=1,location=1,menubar=1,resizable"); } else { popwin = window.open(url,"popwin"+wname,"height="+h+",width="+w+",status=1,scrollbars=1,location=0,resizable"); } } // ]]></script> </p> <p>The transfection protocol online library contains protocols obtained from the literature, developed by Bio-Rad scientists, or submitted by scientists like you. <a onclick="popIt('http://www.bio-rad.com/genetransferprotocols',1300,700);return false" href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Browse protocols</a> to view our library and find your starting point or submit a protocol by clicking the proper technology.</p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Further Reading <p><strong></strong>Belyansteva IA (2009). Helios Gene Gun-mediated transfection of the inner ear sensory epithelium. Methods Mol Biol 493, 103&ndash;123. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18839344" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">18839344</a></p> <p>Fujiki R et al. (2009). GlcNAcylation of a histone methyltransferase in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis. Nature 459, 455&ndash;459. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19377461" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">19377461</a></p> <p>Helledie T et al. (2008). A simple and reliable electroporation method for human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev 17, 837&ndash;848. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18752428" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">18752428</a></p> <p>Hockemeyer D et al. (2009). Efficient targeting of expressed and silent genes in human ESCs and iPSCs using zinc-finger nucleases. Nat Biotechnol &nbsp;27, 851&ndash;857. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19680244" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">19680244</a></p> <p>Huang B et al. (2008). RNA interference-mediated in vivo silencing of fas ligand as a strategy for the enhancement of DNA vaccine potency. Hum Gene Ther 19, 763&ndash;773. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18627219" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">18627219</a></p> <p>Shimamura K et al. (2007). Generation of secondary small interfering RNA in cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous RNA silencing in tobacco. Plant Mol Biol&nbsp; 63, 803&ndash;813. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17225952" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">17225952</a></p> <p>Su L et al. (2009). Neural stem cell differentiation is mediated by integrin beta4 in vitro. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41, 916&ndash;924. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18834954" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">18834954</a></p> <p>Tseng CN et al. (2013). A method to identify RNA A-to-I editing targets using I-specific cleavage and exon array analysis. Mol Cell Probes 7, 38&ndash;45. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960667" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">22960667</a></p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Selection Guides <table id="carttablealigned" class="literature_table" style="height: auto; width: 583px;" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="100">6176</td> <td width="350">Electroporation Systems Overview</td> <td class="pdf"><a class="pdf" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6176.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><span>Click to download</span></a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="100">6177</td> <td width="350">Biolistic Particle Delivery Systems</td> <td class="pdf"><a class="pdf" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6177.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><span>Click to download</span></a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="100">6178</td> <td width="350">Recommended Biolistic System by Cell Types</td> <td class="pdf"><a class="pdf" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6178.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><span>Click to download</span></a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="100">6179</td> <td width="350">Lipid Transfection Reagents Selection Guide</td> <td class="pdf"><a class="pdf" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6179.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><span>Click to download</span></a></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="videowrap"> <div class="videoImg"><a title="Primary Cell Culture" href="http://www.jove.com/video/1026/the-preparation-of-primary-hematopoietic-cell-cultures-from-murine-bone-marrow-for-electroporation" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><img style="border: none;" src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/support/tutorials/global/ov_primary_cell_culture.jpg" alt="Primary Cell Culture" /></a></div> <div class="videoDesc"><a title="Primary Cell Culture" href="http://www.jove.com/video/1026/the-preparation-of-primary-hematopoietic-cell-cultures-from-murine-bone-marrow-for-electroporation" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The Preparation of Primary Hematopoietic Cell Cultures From Murine Bone Marrow for Electroporation</a><br />This video protocol describes the preparation of primary hematopoietic cell cultures from murine bone marrow for electroporation.</div> <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div> </div> <div class="videowrap"> <div class="videoImg"><a title="Cell Counting and Transfection" href="http://www.jove.com/video/1904/using-an-automated-cell-counter-to-simplify-gene-expression-studies-sirna-knockdown-of-il-4-dependent-gene-expression-in-namalwa-cells" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><img style="border: none;" src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/support/tutorials/global/ov_cell_counting_transfection.jpg" alt="Cell Counting and Transfection" /></a></div> <div class="videoDesc"><a title="Cell Counting and Transfection" href="http://www.jove.com/video/1904/using-an-automated-cell-counter-to-simplify-gene-expression-studies-sirna-knockdown-of-il-4-dependent-gene-expression-in-namalwa-cells" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Using an Automated Cell Counter to Simplify Gene Expression Studies: siRNA Knockdown of IL-4 Dependent Gene Expression in Namalwa Cells</a></div> <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div> </div> <div class="videowrap"> <div class="videoImg"><a title="Gene Pulser MXcell" href="http://www.jove.com/video/1662/using-the-gene-pulser-mxcell-electroporation-system-to-transfect-primary-cells-with-high-efficiency" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><img style="border: none;" src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/support/tutorials/global/ov_gene_pulser_mxcell.jpg" alt="Gene Pulser MXcell" /></a></div> <div class="videoDesc"><a title="Gene Pulser MXcell" href="http://www.jove.com/video/1662/using-the-gene-pulser-mxcell-electroporation-system-to-transfect-primary-cells-with-high-efficiency" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System to Transfect Primary Cells with High Efficiency</a></div> <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div> </div> <div class="videowrap"> <div class="videoImg"><a title="Helios Gene Gun" href="http://www.jove.com/Details.stp?ID=675" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><img style="border: none;" src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/support/tutorials/global/helios_gene_gun.jpg" alt="Helios Gene Gun" /></a></div> <div class="videoDesc"><a title="Helios Gene Gun" href="http://www.jove.com/Details.stp?ID=675" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Preparation of Gene Gun Bullets and Biolistic Transfection of Neurons in Slice Culture</a></div> <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div> </div> <div class="videowrap vwrap_last"> <div class="videoImg"><a title="Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation System: Components, Application, and Troubleshooting" onclick="window.open('/webroot/web/movies/lsr/support/Gene_Pulser_Xcell.htm', 'StatusBar', 'toolbar=no, resizable=no, scrollbars=no, width=810, height=575');" href="javascript:void(0);"><img style="border: none;" src="https://www.bio-rad.com/webroot/web/images/lsr/support/tutorials/global/xcell_tn.png" alt="" /></a></div> <div class="videoDesc"><a title="Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation System: Components, Application, and Troubleshooting" onclick="window.open('/webroot/web/movies/lsr/support/Gene_Pulser_Xcell.htm', 'StatusBar', 'toolbar=no, resizable=no, scrollbars=no, width=810, height=575');" href="javascript:void(0);">Gene Pulser Xcell&trade; Electroporation System: Components, Application, and Troubleshooting</a><br /> This tutorial highlights the main components and features of the Gene Pulser Xcell system. It provides information about system installation and the setup of electroporation experiments, including important troubleshooting tips and answers to frequently asked questions. Ordering information for system components and accessories is also provided.</div> <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div> </div> 5448 5542 5582 5399 5445 5598 1908 5553 5554 5924 1349 1365 1345 1355 1345 1349 5542 5858 5641 5603 5622 5686 5687 5720 5704 5733 5774 5778 5823 5842 5684 0108 5860 5904 2497 5443 5447 5446 2051 2015 2007 2087 2658 2453 1688 1689 2768 2433 2552 2453 2531 2410 2726 1689 2768 3105 2873 2874 5894 3197 3138_015 3138_005 3138_009 5226 3138_018 3138_017 5439 5370 5807 5808 5894 Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Electroporation/Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation Systems ->MT::b1a35eb3-d55c-47b3-aaf3-95e4d1d85848##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Electroporation/Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System ->MT::fae0f825-da45-4b02-aa33-73781dda6171##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Electroporation/MicroPulser Electroporator ->MT::83527990-34fb-4b33-b955-ca53b57bf8b9##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Biolistic Particle Delivery Systems/Helios Gene Gun Systems ->MT::42e9d6be-369a-49f8-8fbb-281a0fea6df8##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Biolistic Particle Delivery Systems/PDS-1000 | He and Hepta Systems ->MT::1730e08d-f43a-46ea-b7f3-7b35c04c36eb##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Lipid Transfection/TransFectin Lipid Reagent ->MT::680dace0-c2a1-451c-ba7f-d15a2294aa52##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Lipid Transfection/siLentFect Lipid Reagent for RNAi ->MT::6860e063-0049-4607-95f9-03cae130b221## Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Cell Counting Methods ->MTS::LUSOLB470##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/qPCR|Real-Time PCR ->MTS::LUSO4W8UU##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/PCR ->MTS::LUSNYI15##Life Science Research/Solutions/Applications/Genomics/Nucleic Acid Analysis ->MTS::LUSNPJ7OP##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Imaging and Analysis ->MTS::LUSQC6MNI## Eddie C Introduction to Transfection <p>Information and tips on electroporation, viral transfection vector, lipofection, and biolistics transformation for planning and selecting the appropriate transfection method.</p> 12/28/11 02:51 PM 12/28/21 03:02 PM AE,AI,AL,AM,AR,AT,AU,AZ,BA,BD,BE,BF,BG,BH,BN,BO,BR,BW,CA,CH,CL,CM,CN,CO,CR,CY,CZ,DE,DK,DO,DZ,EC,EE,EG,EH,ER,ES,ET,FI,FM,FO,FR,GA,GE,GF,GH,GP,GR,GT,GU,HK,HN,HR,HT,HU,ID,IE,IL,IN,IS,IT,JM,JO,JP,KE,KH,KR,KW,KZ,LB,LI,LK,LT,LU,LV,MA,MD,MG,MK,ML,MO,MQ,MS,MT,MU,MX,MY,NG,NI,NL,NO,NP,NZ,OM,PA,PE,PF,PG,PH,PK,PL,PR,PS,PT,PW,PY,QA,RO,RS,RU,SA,SB,SE,SG,SI,SK,SN,ST,SV,TG,TH,TN,TO,TR,TT,TW,TZ,UA,UG,UK,US,UY,UZ,VA,VE,VU,XK,YE,ZA en LSR /LSR/Technologies/Transfection N 0
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