Instrument-Based Transfection Methods

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Overview

Transfection of cells can be accomplished by various methods, including chemical, biological, and instrument-based. This section provides an overview of the different instrument-based transfection methods available, discusses how they work, and describes their pros and cons.

Related Topics: Chemical- and Viral-Based Transfection Methods, Posttransfection Analysis of Cells and Cell Counting Methods.

 

Overview of Instrument-Based Transfection Methods

Transfection can be accomplished using chemical, biological, or physical methods. Common methods include electroporation, the use of virus vectors, lipofection, and biolistics. Many types of genetic material, including plasmid DNA, siRNA, proteins, dyes, and antibodies may be transfected using any of these methods. However, no single method can be applied to all types of cells; transfection efficiencies and cytotoxicity may vary dramatically and depend on the method, cell type being utilized, and types of experiments being performed. Therefore, to obtain high efficiencies, all relevant factors should be considered in planning and selecting the appropriate transfection method.

Method Function Pros Cons Cells Products
Electroporation Nucleic acids or other molecules are introduced into cells by creating transient pores in the plasma membrane using an electric pulse Nonchemical method that doesn't seem to alter the biological structure or function of the target cells

Easy to perform

High efficiency

Can be applied to a wide range of cell types
Cell mortality (if using suboptimal conditions) Eukaryotic cells (primary, stem cells)

Prokaryotic cells (bacteria, yeast)

Plant protoplasts
Gene Pulser Xcell electroporation system

Gene Pulser MXcell electroporation system

MicroPulser electroporator
Biolistic particle delivery Delivery of nucleic acids into cells via high-velocity nucleic acid-coated microparticles Simple, rapid, versatile technique

Targeted intracellular gene delivery

Cell type independent

Uses small amounts of DNA

Delivers single or multiple genes

No carrier DNA needed

Can deliver large DNA fragments

No extraneous genes or proteins delivered

Requires little manipulation of cells

High reproducibility
Generally lower efficiency compared to electroporation or viral or lipid mediated transfection

Limited bacterial transfection data

Requires the preparation of microparticles

Instrument cost

Requires purchase agreement
Plant

Primary cells

Tissue

In vivo applications
Helios® gene gun system

PDS-1000/He and Hepta systems
Microinjection Direct injection of naked DNA Can be used for many animals Laborious (one cell at a time)

Technically demanding and costly
Eukaryotic cells  
Laserfection/
optoinjection
Uses laser light to transiently permeabilize a large number of cells in a very short time Very efficient

Works with many cell types

Few cell manipulations needed

Requires cell to be attached

Expensive laser equipment required
Attached cells  
 

Electroporation

  • 1. Electroporation exposes a cell to a high-intensity electric field that temporarily destabilizes the membrane
  • 2. During this time the membrane is highly permeable to exogenous molecules present in the surrounding media
  • 3. DNA then moves into the cell through these holes
  • 4. When the field is turned off, the pores in the membrane reseal, enclosing the DNA inside

Electroporation of cells.

 

Biolistic Particle Delivery

Biolistics is the delivery of nucleic acids into cells by firing nucleic acid-coated microparticles into them.

Helios Gene Gun

  • For in situ, in vivo and in vitro transformations
  • Applications for animals, plants, cell culture, nematodes, yeast and bacteria
  • Pressure range 100–600 psi enables fine-tuning of penetration
  • Highly portable can be used in the field
  • Small target area for accurate targeting

Biolistic particle delivery workflow.

PDS-1000/He Biolistic Particle Delivery System

  • For in vitro, ex vivo (and in vivo for some plants and microbes)
  • Applications for animal cell and organ culture, plant cell culture and explants, pollen, insects, algae, fungi and bacteria
  • Pressure range 450–2200 psi gives flexibility and penetration — ideal for plant applications
  • Large target area — more cells can be transformed

Procedure

  1. DNA-coated microcarriers (thin plastic disk) are spread over the central area of that disk using a pipette tip.
  2. Disk loaded with the DNA-coated particles is placed into a holder inside the PDS-1000 system.
  3. The system uses high pressure helium, released by a rupture disk, and a partial vacuum, to propel the macrocarrier sheet loaded with DNA-coated gold macrocarriers toward the target cells.
  4. Macrocarrier is halted after a short distance by a stopping screen.
  5. DNA-coated particles continue traveling toward the target to penetrate the cells.
  6. Sample chamber is subjected to a partial vacuum, from 15 to 29 in. of mercury, depending on the target cells.

 

Workflow for delivery using PDS-1000/He system.

 

Microinjection

  • Direct injection of naked DNA
  • Laborious (one cell at a time)
  • Technically demanding and costly
  • Can be used for many animals

Microinjection of particles.

 

Laserfection/Optoinjection

  • This procedure uses laser light to transiently permeabilize a large number of cells in a very short time
  • Various substances, including ions, small molecules, dextrans, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), plasmids, proteins, and semiconductor nanocrystals can be efficiently optoinjected into numerous cell types

Workflow for laserfection.

 

Transfection Protocol Library

The transfection protocol online library contains protocols obtained from the literature, developed by Bio-Rad scientists, or submitted by scientists like you. Browse protocols to view our library and find your starting point or submit a protocol by clicking the proper technology.

 

Further Reading

Belyansteva IA (2009). Helios Gene Gun-mediated transfection of the inner ear sensory epithelium. Methods Mol Biol 493, 103–123. PMID: 18839344

Benediktsson AM et al. (2005). Ballistic labeling and dynamic imaging of astrocytes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. J Neurosci Methods 141, 41–53. PMID: 15585287

Eizema K et al. (2000). Endothelin-1 responsiveness of a 1.4 kb phospholamban promoter fragment in rat cardiomyocytes transfected by the gene gun. J Mol Cell Cardiol 32, 311–321. PMID: 10722806

Fujiki R et al. (2009). GlcNAcylation of a histone methyltransferase in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis. Nature 459, 455–459. PMID: 19377461

Gildea JJ et al. (2009). Caveolin-1 and dopamine-mediated internalization of NaKATPase in human renal proximal tubule cells. Hypertension 54, 1070–1076. PMID: 19752292

Helledie T et al. (2008). A simple and reliable electroporation method for human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev 17, 837–848. PMID: 18752428

Hockemeyer D et al. (2009). Efficient targeting of expressed and silent genes in human ESCs and iPSCs using zinc-finger nucleases. Nat Biotechnol 27, 851–857. PMID: 19680244

Huang B et al. (2008). RNA interference-mediated in vivo silencing of fas ligand as a strategy for the enhancement of DNA vaccine potency. Hum Gene Ther 19, 763–773. PMID: 18627219

Shimamura K et al. (2007). Generation of secondary small interfering RNA in cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous RNA silencing in tobacco. Plant Mol Biol 63, 803–813. PMID: 17225952

Su L et al. (2009). Neural stem cell differentiation is mediated by integrin beta4 in vitro. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41, 916–924. PMID: 18834954

Tseng CN et al. (2013). A method to identify RNA A-to-I editing targets using I-specific cleavage and exon array analysis. Mol Cell Probes 7, 38–45. PMID: 22960667

Wirth MJ and Wahle P (2003). Biolistic transfection of organotypic cultures of rat visual cortex using a handheld device. J Neurosci Methods 125, 45–54. PMID: 12763229

Zhang G and Selzer ME (2001). In vivo transfection of lamprey brain neurons by gene gun delivery of DNA. Exp Neurol 167, 304–311. PMID: 11161618

 

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Number Description Download
5448 MicroPulser Electroporator Flier, Rev A Click to download
5542 Electroporation Systems Brochure, Rev A Click to download
5582 Gene Pulser Electroporation Buffer Product Information Sheet, Rev A Click to download
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5555 Protein Interaction Analysis Workflow Brochure, Rev B Click to download
5554 Gene Silencing | RNAi Workflow Brochure, Rev B Click to download
5924 Stem Cell Basics for Life Science Researchers Brochure, Rev A Click to download
1349 Electroporation of T-Cell and Macrophage Cell Lines Click to download
1365 Introducing Proteins Into Cells by Electroporation Click to download
1345 Electroporation of Primary Bone Marrow Cells Click to download
1355 Production of Hybridomas by Electrofusion Click to download
5858 The Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System Provides Reproducible Results in Electroporation Plates and Cuvettes With the Same Protocol, Rev A Click to download
5641 The Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System Delivers Consistent Results Required for Optimizing Delivery Protocols, Rev A Click to download
5603 Optimization of Electroporation Using Gene Pulser Electroporation Buffer and the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5622 Optimization of Electroporation Conditions With the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5686 Optimization of Electroporation Conditions for Jurkat Cells Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5687 Transfection of Mammalian Cells Using Preset Protocols on the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5720 Transfection of Neuroblastoma Cell Lines Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5704 Electroporation Conditions for Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5733 Transfection of Chinese Hamster Ovary-Derived DG44 Cells Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5774 Delivery of siRNA by Electroporation Into Primary Human Neutrophils Using the Gene Pulser MXcell System, Rev A Click to download
5778 Electroporation Parameters for Transfection of HL-60 Leukocytic Cell Line With siRNA Using the Gene Pulser MXcell System, Rev B Click to download
5823 Electroporation of Primary Murine Mast Cells Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5842 Optimization of Electroporation Conditions for Two Different Burkitt Lymphoma Cell Lines Using the Gene Pulser MXcell System, Rev B Click to download
0108 Simple and Rapid Optimization With Maximum Transfection Efficiency, Rev A Click to download
5860 Analysis of IL-4 Dependent Gene Expression in Namalwa Cells by siRNA Transfection: An Example of Pathway Analysis Using the Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System, Rev A Click to download
5904 Transfection of Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Electroporation Using the Gene Pulser Mxcell™ System, Rev A Click to download
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2658 Single-Cell Complementation of Barley <i>mlo</i> Mutants Using a PDS-1000/He Hepta System Click to download
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1688 Optimization of Biolistic<sup>&reg;</sup> Transformation Using the Helium-Driven PDS-1000/He System Click to download
1689 Comparison of Performance Characteristics of Different Biolistic<sup>&reg;</sup> Devices Click to download
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2531 Inoculation of Viral RNA and cDNA to Potato and Tobacco Plants Using the Helios Gene Gun Click to download
2410 Detection of Reporter Gene Activity in Cell Cultures and Murine Epidermis After Helios<sup>&reg;</sup> Gene Gun-Mediated Particle Bombardment, Rev B Click to download
2726 Delivery of pCMV-S DNA Using the Helios&reg; Gene Gun System Is Superior to Intramuscular Injection in Balb/c Mice Click to download
2768 Biolistic Gene Transfer to Generate Transgenic Schistosomes, Rev A Click to download
6176 Electroporation Systems Overview Click to download
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6178 Recommended Biolistic System by Cell Types Click to download
6179 Lipid Transfection Reagents Selection Guide Click to download
 
 
LUSONV30E [x-forwarded-proto] = [http] [x-forwarded-port] = [80] [x-forwarded-for] = [54.227.17.101, 10.232.19.220] [accept] = [text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8] [seourl] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/instrument-based-transfection-methods] [x-amzn-trace-id] = [Root=1-5a924e98-472630b31416245c0685818c] [x-forwarded-server] = [lsds-prod-s.br.aws-livesite.io] [x-forwarded-host] = [www.bio-rad.com] [x-query-string] = [ID=LUSONV30E] [host] = [10.232.16.28:1776] [x-request-uri] = [/en-us/applications-technologies/instrument-based-transfection-methods] [connection] = [Keep-Alive] [accept-encoding] = [x-gzip, gzip, deflate] [user-agent] = [CCBot/2.0 (http://commoncrawl.org/faq/)] AppTech/AppTechDetails pageStyleKey internet/solutions_sub applications-technologies/instrument-based-transfection-methods LUSONV30E Instrument based Instrument-Based Transfection Methods /webroot/web/html/lsr/solutions/technologies/transfection <p>Transfection of cells can be accomplished by various methods, including chemical, biological, and instrument-based. This section provides an overview of the different instrument-based transfection methods available, discusses how they work, and describes their pros and cons.</p> <p><strong>Related Topics</strong>: <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSOOP49">Chemical- and Viral-Based Transfection Methods</a>, <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSOPS84">Posttransfection Analysis of Cells</a> and <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSOLB470">Cell Counting Methods</a>.</p> Overview of Instrument-Based Transfection Methods <p>Transfection can be accomplished using chemical, biological, or physical methods. Common methods include electroporation, the use of virus vectors, lipofection, and biolistics. Many types of genetic material, including plasmid DNA, siRNA, proteins, dyes, and antibodies may be transfected using any of these methods. However, no single method can be applied to all types of cells; transfection efficiencies and cytotoxicity may vary dramatically and depend on the method, cell type being utilized, and types of experiments being performed. Therefore, to obtain high efficiencies, all relevant factors should be considered in planning and selecting the appropriate transfection method.</p> <table class="pd_table pd_gridlines txttop" border="0"> <tbody> <tr class="pd_colorbackground"> <td><strong>Method</strong></td> <td><strong>Function</strong></td> <td><strong>Pros</strong></td> <td><strong>Cons</strong></td> <td><strong>Cells</strong></td> <td><strong>Products</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">Electroporation</td> <td valign="top">Nucleic acids or other molecules are introduced into cells by creating transient pores in the plasma membrane using an electric pulse</td> <td valign="top">Nonchemical method that doesn't seem to alter the biological structure or function of the target cells<br /><br /> Easy to perform<br /><br /> High efficiency<br /><br /> Can be applied to a wide range of cell types</td> <td valign="top">Cell mortality (if using suboptimal conditions)</td> <td valign="top">Eukaryotic cells (primary, stem cells)<br /><br /> Prokaryotic cells (bacteria, yeast)<br /><br />Plant protoplasts</td> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=b1a35eb3-d55c-47b3-aaf3-95e4d1d85848">Gene Pulser Xcell<sup>&trade;</sup> electroporation system</a><br /> <br /> <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=fae0f825-da45-4b02-aa33-73781dda6171">Gene Pulser MXcell<sup>&trade;</sup> electroporation system</a><br /> <br /> <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=83527990-34fb-4b33-b955-ca53b57bf8b9">MicroPulser<sup>&trade;</sup> electroporator</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">Biolistic particle delivery</td> <td valign="top">Delivery of nucleic acids into cells via high-velocity nucleic acid-coated microparticles</td> <td valign="top">Simple, rapid, versatile technique<br /><br /> Targeted intracellular gene delivery<br /><br /> Cell type independent<br /><br /> Uses small amounts of DNA<br /><br /> Delivers single or multiple genes<br /><br /> No carrier DNA needed<br /><br /> Can deliver large DNA fragments<br /><br /> No extraneous genes or proteins delivered<br /><br /> Requires little manipulation of cells<br /><br /> High reproducibility</td> <td valign="top">Generally lower efficiency compared to electroporation or viral or lipid mediated transfection<br /><br /> Limited bacterial transfection data<br /><br /> Requires the preparation of microparticles<br /><br /> Instrument cost<br /><br /> Requires purchase agreement</td> <td valign="top">Plant<br /><br /> Primary cells<br /><br /> Tissue<br /><br /> In vivo applications</td> <td valign="top"><a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=42e9d6be-369a-49f8-8fbb-281a0fea6df8">Helios<sup>&reg;</sup> gene gun system</a><br /> <br /> <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=1730e08d-f43a-46ea-b7f3-7b35c04c36eb">PDS-1000/He and Hepta<sup>&trade;</sup> systems</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">Microinjection</td> <td valign="top">Direct injection of naked DNA</td> <td valign="top">Can be used for many animals</td> <td valign="top">Laborious (one cell at a time)<br /><br /> Technically demanding and costly</td> <td valign="top">Eukaryotic cells</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">Laserfection/<br /> optoinjection</td> <td valign="top">Uses laser light to transiently permeabilize a large number of cells in a very short time</td> <td valign="top">Very efficient<br /><br /> Works with many cell types<br /><br /> Few cell manipulations needed<br /><br /></td> <td valign="top">Requires cell to be attached<br /><br /> Expensive laser equipment required</td> <td valign="top">Attached cells</td> <td valign="top">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Electroporation <p><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/gene_expression/pcr/technology_detail/gxt41_img1.jpg" alt="" width="245" height="624" align="left" /></p> <ul style="list-style-type: none;"> <li style="margin-bottom: 125px;">1. Electroporation exposes a cell to a high-intensity electric field that temporarily destabilizes the membrane</li> <li style="margin-bottom: 135px;">2. During this time the membrane is highly permeable to exogenous molecules present in the surrounding media</li> <li style="margin-bottom: 145px;">3. DNA then moves into the cell through these holes</li> <li>4. When the field is turned off, the pores in the membrane reseal, enclosing the DNA inside</li> </ul> <p class="caption" style="clear: both;"><strong>Electroporation of cells.</strong></p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Biolistic Particle Delivery <p>Biolistics is the delivery of nucleic acids into cells by firing nucleic acid-coated microparticles into them.</p> <p><strong>Helios Gene Gun</strong></p> <ul> <li>For in situ, in vivo and in vitro transformations</li> <li>Applications for animals, plants, cell culture, nematodes, yeast and bacteria</li> <li>Pressure range 100&ndash;600 psi enables fine-tuning of penetration</li> <li>Highly portable can be used in the field</li> <li>Small target area for accurate targeting</li> </ul> <p><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/gene_expression/pcr/technology_detail/gxt41_img2.jpg" alt="" width="560" height="270" /></p> <p class="caption"><strong>Biolistic particle delivery workflow.</strong></p> <p><strong>PDS-1000/He Biolistic Particle Delivery System</strong></p> <ul> <li>For in vitro, ex vivo (and in vivo for some plants and microbes)</li> <li>Applications for animal cell and organ culture, plant cell culture and explants, pollen, insects, algae, fungi and bacteria</li> <li>Pressure range 450&ndash;2200 psi gives flexibility and penetration &mdash; ideal for plant applications</li> <li>Large target area &mdash; more cells can be transformed</li> </ul> <p><strong>Procedure</strong></p> <ol> <li>DNA-coated microcarriers (thin plastic disk) are spread over the central area of that disk using a pipette tip.</li> <li>Disk loaded with the DNA-coated particles is placed into a holder inside the PDS-1000 system.</li> <li>The system uses high pressure helium, released by a rupture disk, and a partial vacuum, to propel the macrocarrier sheet loaded with DNA-coated gold macrocarriers toward the target cells.</li> <li>Macrocarrier is halted after a short distance by a stopping screen.</li> <li>DNA-coated particles continue traveling toward the target to penetrate the cells.</li> <li>Sample chamber is subjected to a partial vacuum, from 15 to 29 in. of mercury, depending on the target cells.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/gene_expression/pcr/technology_detail/gxt41_img3.jpg" alt="" width="560" height="224" /></p> <p class="caption"><strong>Workflow for delivery using PDS-1000/He system.</strong></p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Microinjection <ul> <li>Direct injection of naked DNA</li> <li>Laborious (one cell at a time)</li> <li>Technically demanding and costly</li> <li>Can be used for many animals</li> </ul> <p><img src="http://qaevn.bio-rad.com/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/gene_expression/pcr/technology_detail/gxt41_img4.jpg" alt="" width="532" height="172" /></p> <p class="caption"><strong>Microinjection of particles.</strong></p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Laserfection/Optoinjection <ul> <li>This procedure uses laser light to transiently permeabilize a large number of cells in a very short time</li> <li>Various substances, including ions, small molecules, dextrans, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), plasmids, proteins, and semiconductor nanocrystals can be efficiently optoinjected into numerous cell types</li> </ul> <p><img src="http://qaevn.bio-rad.com/webroot/web/images/lsr/solutions/technologies/gene_expression/pcr/technology_detail/gxt41_img5.jpg" alt="" width="532" height="144" /></p> <p class="caption"><strong>Workflow for laserfection.</strong></p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Transfection Protocol Library <p> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- // popupwin function popIt(url,w,h,r){ var mydate = new Date(); wname=''+mydate.getMonth()+mydate.getDate()+mydate.getHours()+mydate.getMinutes()+mydate.getSeconds(); if (w && h && r) { popwin = window.open(url,"popwin"+wname,"height="+h+",width="+w+",status=1,scrollbars=1,location=1,menubar=1,resizable"); } else { popwin = window.open(url,"popwin"+wname,"height="+h+",width="+w+",status=1,scrollbars=1,location=0,resizable"); } } // --></script> </p> <p>The transfection protocol online library contains protocols obtained from the literature, developed by Bio-Rad scientists, or submitted by scientists like you. <a onclick="popIt('/genetransferprotocols',1300,700);return false" href="#" target="_blank">Browse protocols</a> to view our library and find your starting point or submit a protocol by clicking the proper technology.</p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Further Reading <p>Belyansteva IA (2009). Helios Gene Gun-mediated transfection of the inner ear sensory epithelium. Methods Mol Biol 493, 103&ndash;123. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18839344" target="_blank">18839344</a></p> <p>Benediktsson AM et al. (2005). Ballistic labeling and dynamic imaging of astrocytes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. J Neurosci Methods 141, 41&ndash;53. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15585287" target="_blank">15585287</a></p> <p>Eizema K et al. (2000). Endothelin-1 responsiveness of a 1.4 kb phospholamban promoter fragment in rat cardiomyocytes transfected by the gene gun. J Mol Cell Cardiol 32, 311&ndash;321. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10722806" target="_blank">10722806</a></p> <p>Fujiki R et al. (2009). GlcNAcylation of a histone methyltransferase in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis. Nature 459, 455&ndash;459. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19377461" target="_blank">19377461</a></p> <p>Gildea JJ et al. (2009). Caveolin-1 and dopamine-mediated internalization of NaKATPase in human renal proximal tubule cells. Hypertension 54, 1070&ndash;1076. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19752292" target="_blank">19752292</a></p> <p>Helledie T et al. (2008). A simple and reliable electroporation method for human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev 17, 837&ndash;848. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18752428" target="_blank">18752428</a></p> <p>Hockemeyer D et al. (2009). Efficient targeting of expressed and silent genes in human ESCs and iPSCs using zinc-finger nucleases. Nat Biotechnol 27, 851&ndash;857. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19680244" target="_blank">19680244</a></p> <p>Huang B et al. (2008). RNA interference-mediated in vivo silencing of fas ligand as a strategy for the enhancement of DNA vaccine potency. Hum Gene Ther 19, 763&ndash;773. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18627219" target="_blank">18627219</a></p> <p>Shimamura K et al. (2007). Generation of secondary small interfering RNA in cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous RNA silencing in tobacco. Plant Mol Biol 63, 803&ndash;813. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17225952" target="_blank">17225952</a></p> <p>Su L et al. (2009). Neural stem cell differentiation is mediated by integrin beta4 in vitro. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41, 916&ndash;924. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18834954" target="_blank">18834954</a></p> <p>Tseng CN et al. (2013). A method to identify RNA A-to-I editing targets using I-specific cleavage and exon array analysis. Mol Cell Probes 7, 38&ndash;45. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960667" target="_blank">22960667</a></p> <p>Wirth MJ and Wahle P (2003). Biolistic transfection of organotypic cultures of rat visual cortex using a handheld device. J Neurosci Methods 125, 45&ndash;54. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12763229" target="_blank">12763229</a></p> <p>Zhang G and Selzer ME (2001). In vivo transfection of lamprey brain neurons by gene gun delivery of DNA. Exp Neurol 167, 304&ndash;311. PMID: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11161618" target="_blank">11161618</a></p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Selection guides <table id="carttablealigned" class="literature_table" style="height: auto; width: 583px;" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="100">6176</td> <td width="350">Electroporation Systems Overview</td> <td class="pdf"><a class="pdf" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6176.pdf" target="_blank"><span>Click to download</span></a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="100">6177</td> <td width="350">Biolistic Particle Delivery Systems</td> <td class="pdf"><a class="pdf" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6177.pdf" target="_blank"><span>Click to download</span></a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="100">6178</td> <td width="350">Recommended Biolistic System by Cell Types</td> <td class="pdf"><a class="pdf" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6178.pdf" target="_blank"><span>Click to download</span></a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="100">6179</td> <td width="350">Lipid Transfection Reagents Selection Guide</td> <td class="pdf"><a class="pdf" href="/webroot/web/pdf/lsr/literature/Bulletin_6179.pdf" target="_blank"><span>Click to download</span></a></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="videowrap vwrap_last"> <div class="videoImg"><a title="Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation System: Components, Application, and Troubleshooting" onclick="window.open('/webroot/web/movies/lsr/support/Gene_Pulser_Xcell.htm', 'StatusBar', 'toolbar=no, resizable=no, scrollbars=no, width=810, height=575');" href="javascript:void(0);"><img style="border:none;" src="https://www.bio-rad.com/webroot/web/images/lsr/support/tutorials/global/xcell_tn.png" alt="" /></a></div> <div class="videoDesc"><a title="Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation System: Components, Application, and Troubleshooting" onclick="window.open('/webroot/web/movies/lsr/support/Gene_Pulser_Xcell.htm', 'StatusBar', 'toolbar=no, resizable=no, scrollbars=no, width=810, height=575');" href="javascript:void(0);">Gene Pulser Xcell&trade; Electroporation System: Components, Application, and Troubleshooting</a><br /> This tutorial highlights the main components and features of the Gene Pulser Xcell system. It provides information about system installation and the setup of electroporation experiments, including important troubleshooting tips and answers to frequently asked questions. Ordering information for system components and accessories is also provided.</div> <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div> </div> 5448 5542 5582 5399 5445 5598 5634 1908 5555 5554 5924 1349 1365 1345 1355 1365 1345 1349 5542 5858 5641 5603 5622 5686 5687 5720 5704 5733 5774 5778 5823 5842 5684 0108 5860 5904 2497 5443 5447 5446 2051 2015 2007 2087 2658 2453 1688 1689 2433 2552 2453 2531 2410 2726 1689 2768 Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Electroporation/Gene Pulser Xcell Electroporation Systems ->MT::b1a35eb3-d55c-47b3-aaf3-95e4d1d85848##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Electroporation/Gene Pulser MXcell Electroporation System ->MT::fae0f825-da45-4b02-aa33-73781dda6171##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Electroporation/MicroPulser Electroporator ->MT::83527990-34fb-4b33-b955-ca53b57bf8b9##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Biolistic Particle Delivery Systems/Helios Gene Gun Systems ->MT::42e9d6be-369a-49f8-8fbb-281a0fea6df8##Life Science Research/Products/Transfection/Biolistic Particle Delivery Systems/PDS-1000 | He and Hepta Systems ->MT::1730e08d-f43a-46ea-b7f3-7b35c04c36eb## Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/qPCR|Real-Time PCR ->MTS::LUSO4W8UU##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Cell Counting Methods ->MTS::LUSOLB470##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Imaging and Analysis ->MTS::LUSQC6MNI##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Transfection ->MTS::LUSONCB9O## Eddie C Instrument-Based Transfection Methods 12/28/11 04:27 PM 12/28/21 04:37 PM AE,AI,AL,AM,AR,AT,AU,AZ,BA,BD,BE,BF,BG,BH,BN,BO,BR,BW,CA,CH,CL,CM,CN,CO,CR,CY,CZ,DE,DK,DO,DZ,EC,EE,EG,EH,ER,ES,ET,FI,FM,FO,FR,GA,GE,GF,GH,GP,GR,GT,GU,HK,HN,HR,HT,HU,ID,IE,IL,IN,IS,IT,JM,JO,JP,KE,KH,KR,KW,KZ,LB,LI,LK,LT,LU,LV,MA,MD,MG,MK,ML,MO,MQ,MS,MT,MU,MX,MY,NG,NI,NL,NO,NP,NZ,OM,PA,PE,PF,PG,PH,PK,PL,PR,PS,PT,PW,PY,QA,RO,RS,RU,SA,SB,SE,SG,SI,SK,SN,ST,SV,TG,TH,TN,TO,TR,TT,TW,TZ,UA,UG,UK,US,UY,UZ,VA,VE,VU,XK,YE,ZA en LSR /LSR/Technologies/Transfection N 0
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