Protein A/G Affinity

Print

Overview

Protein A and G chromatography media are commonly used in antibody purification due to the high binding affinity and specificity of Protein A or G with the Fc region of the antibody. Key attributes for these methods are simplicity, purity, and yield. Purification can be completed quickly on any chromatography system, using basic gravity fed columns to more sophisticated HPLC systems. This section provides an overview of Protein A and G chromatography with general considerations

Related Topics in Chromatography: Affinity Chromatography, Affinity Purification of Tagged Recombinant Proteins, and Affinity Chromatography: Activated Supports.

 

General Considerations for Affinity Purification

Immobilized Protein A and G from Staphylococcus aureus have been used for many years to purify antibodies from a variety of species (Hjelm et al. 1972). The high selectivity and stability of protein A and G have made them a popular choice for the purification of antibodies from a wide range of sample sources, including serum, ascitic fluid, and hybridoma cell culture supernatants. Mammalian antibodies are categorized into five major classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. IgG is the predominant class of antibody in serum and is generated in large amounts during the secondary immune response. The IgG class of antibody is further divided into subclasses that vary depending upon the species and the properties of the heavy chain component. There are four subclasses of IgG in humans (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4) and in mice (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3). The affinity of protein A for IgG varies considerably between species and IgG subtypes and has been extensively characterized (Duhamel et al. 1979, Schwartz 1990). In humans, protein A binds with high affinity to IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4, but poorly to IgG3. Among the four IgG subtypes in mice, protein A has the weakest affinity for IgG1 while protein G has affinity for all four IgG subclasses. Bio-Rad offers a suite of products for Protein A chromatography: UNOsphere SUPrA™ media, and Affi-Gel® and Affi-Prep® protein A media.

Antibody binding affinity to Protein A and Protein G*

Species IgG Class Protein A Protein G
Chicken egg IgY
Cow IgG +
Dog IgG + +
  IgM +
Goat IgG + +++
  IgM
Horse IgG +++ +++
Rabbit IgG +++ +++
  IgM
Rat IgG + ++
  IgM
Sheep IgG +++ +++
  IgM
Mouse IgG1 + ++
  IgG2a ++ ++
  IgG2b ++ ++
  IgG3 + ++
  IgM ++ +
  IgA ++ ++
Human lgG1 +++ +++
  IgG2 +++ +++
  IgG3 +++
  IgG4 +++ +++
  IgA +
  IgM +
  IgE +

—, No binding; +, weak binding; ++, moderate binding; +++, strong binding.
* Data obtained from Handbook of Affinity Chromatography by David
S. Hage (ISBN 0824740572). Chapter 14 "Affinity Chromatography in
Antibody and Antigen Purification" by Terry M. Phillips.

 

Protein A and G Binding and Elution

The binding of antibodies to protein A is mediated, at neutral or alkaline pH values, through hydrophobic interactions involving a highly conserved histidine residue located in the protein A binding site of IgG. The elution of IgG from immobilized protein A is commonly achieved by lowering the pH using an acidic buffer. Protein A-purified antibodies are then typically neutralized with a base, dialyzed against a neutral buffer, or desalted using a gel-filtration column to avoid acid-mediated hydrolysis and denaturation.

Protein G exhibits a higher binding affinity than Protein A. It binds optimally at acidic pH and, due to its higher binding affinity, requires harsher elution conditions, pH 3.0 or lower, which is inherently detrimental to the activity of the purified antibody. These effects can be minimized, though not entirely eliminated, through rapid neutralization of the collected fractions. The strength of the Protein G/IgG interaction can also result in IgG carry over. To avoid cross contamination, Protein G columns should be specific to the antibody being purified. Due to retained IgG, Protein G has a shorter column life due to the loss in binding capacity after a few purifications. (P. Gagnon, ISBN 0-9653515-9-9).

 

References

Duhamel RC et al., pH gradient elution of human IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 from protein A-sepharose, J Immunol Methods 31(3–4), 211 (1979).

Gagnon P (1996). Purification tools for monoclonal antibodies (Tucson: Validated Biosystems Inc).

Hjelm H et al., ProteinA Staphylococcus aureus. Its isolation by affinity chromatography and its use as an immunosorbent for isolation of immunoglobulins, FEBS Lett 28(1), 73–76 (1972).

Schwartz L (1990), In bacterial immunoglobulin-binding proteins, Vol. 2, M. Boyle, ed. (San Diego: Academic Press), p. 309.

 

Related Content

 
Literature
Number Description Download
5925 Affinity Purification Buffer Kit Product Information Sheet, Rev B Click to download
5712 The Profinia Protein Purification System Simplifies Antibody Purification With Protein A, Rev A Click to download
 
 
LUSMML97Q [x-forwarded-proto] = [http] [accept-language] = [en-US,en;q=0.5] [x-forwarded-port] = [80] [x-forwarded-for] = [54.234.208.87, 10.232.2.164] [accept] = [text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8] [seourl] = [/en-de/applications-technologies/separation-transfer-analysis-proteins] [x-amzn-trace-id] = [Root=1-5d121435-f3249b8498a22906b401dc9e] [x-forwarded-server] = [lsds-prod-s.br.aws-livesite.io] [x-forwarded-host] = [www.bio-rad.com] [x-query-string] = [ID=LUSMML97Q] [host] = [10.232.0.21:1776] [x-request-uri] = [/en-de/applications-technologies/separation-transfer-analysis-proteins] [connection] = [Keep-Alive] [accept-encoding] = [gzip] [user-agent] = [CCBot/2.0 (https://commoncrawl.org/faq/)] AppTech/AppTechDetails pageStyleKey internet/solutions_sub applications-technologies/separation-transfer-analysis-proteins LSR LUSMML97Q Protein A|G Affinity Protein A/G Affinity /webroot/web/html/lsr/solutions/technologies/chromatography <p>Protein A and G chromatography media are commonly used in antibody purification due to the high binding affinity and specificity of Protein A or G with the Fc region of the antibody. Key attributes for these methods are simplicity, purity, and yield. Purification can be completed quickly on any chromatography system, using basic gravity fed columns to more sophisticated HPLC systems. This section provides an overview of Protein A and G chromatography with general considerations</p> <p><strong>Related Topics in Chromatography:</strong> <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSMJIDN">Affinity Chromatography</a>, <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSMKU2B7">Affinity Purification of Tagged Recombinant Proteins</a>, and <a href="/evportal/destination/solutions?catID=LUSMNX3Q3">Affinity Chromatography: Activated Supports</a>.</p> General Considerations for Affinity Purification <p>Immobilized Protein A and G from Staphylococcus aureus have been used for many years to purify antibodies from a variety of species (Hjelm et al. 1972). The high selectivity and stability of protein A and G have made them a popular choice for the purification of antibodies from a wide range of sample sources, including serum, ascitic fluid, and hybridoma cell culture supernatants. Mammalian antibodies are categorized into five major classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. IgG is the predominant class of antibody in serum and is generated in large amounts during the secondary immune response. The IgG class of antibody is further divided into subclasses that vary depending upon the species and the properties of the heavy chain component. There are four subclasses of IgG in humans (IgG<sub>1</sub>, IgG<sub>2</sub>, IgG<sub>3</sub>, IgG<sub>4</sub>) and in mice (IgG<sub>1</sub>, IgG<sub>2</sub>a, IgG<sub>2</sub>b, IgG<sub>3</sub>). The affinity of protein A for IgG varies considerably between species and IgG subtypes and has been extensively characterized (Duhamel et al. 1979, Schwartz 1990). In humans, protein A binds with high affinity to IgG<sub>1</sub>, IgG<sub>2</sub>, and IgG<sub>4</sub>, but poorly to IgG<sub>3</sub>. Among the four IgG subtypes in mice, protein A has the weakest affinity for IgG<sub>1</sub> while protein G has affinity for all four IgG subclasses. Bio-Rad offers a suite of products for Protein A chromatography: <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=e83abc43-ee22-4152-bdc7-7a3c021247b9">UNOsphere SUPrA&trade;</a> media, and <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=2a45d797-fc0e-4e41-ae99-a80a4bbd1fbf">Affi-Gel<sup>&reg;</sup></a> and <a href="http://www.bio-rad.com/evportal/destination/commerce/product_detail?catID=2a45d797-fc0e-4e41-ae99-a80a4bbd1fbf">Affi-Prep<sup>&reg;</sup></a> protein A media.</p> <p><strong>Antibody binding affinity to Protein A and Protein G*</strong></p> <table class="pd_table pd_gridlines" style="width: 350px;" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left"><strong>Species</strong></td> <td align="left"><strong>IgG Class</strong></td> <td align="left"><strong>Protein A</strong></td> <td align="left"><strong> Protein G</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Chicken egg</td> <td align="left">IgY</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Cow</td> <td align="left">IgG</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> <td align="left">+</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Dog</td> <td align="left">IgG</td> <td align="left">+</td> <td align="left">+</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgM</td> <td align="left">+</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Goat</td> <td align="left">IgG</td> <td align="left">+</td> <td align="left">+++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgM</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Horse</td> <td align="left">IgG</td> <td align="left">+++</td> <td align="left">+++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Rabbit</td> <td align="left">IgG</td> <td align="left">+++</td> <td align="left">+++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgM</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Rat</td> <td align="left">IgG</td> <td align="left">+</td> <td align="left">++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgM</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Sheep</td> <td align="left">IgG</td> <td align="left">+++</td> <td align="left">+++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgM</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Mouse</td> <td align="left">IgG<sub>1</sub></td> <td align="left">+</td> <td align="left">++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgG<sub>2a</sub></td> <td align="left">++</td> <td align="left">++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgG<sub>2b</sub></td> <td align="left">++</td> <td align="left">++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgG<sub>3</sub></td> <td align="left">+</td> <td align="left">++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgM</td> <td align="left">++</td> <td align="left">+</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgA</td> <td align="left">++</td> <td align="left">++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Human</td> <td align="left">lgG<sub>1</sub></td> <td align="left">+++</td> <td align="left">+++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgG<sub>2</sub></td> <td align="left">+++</td> <td align="left">+++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgG<sub>3</sub></td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> <td align="left">+++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgG<sub>4</sub></td> <td align="left">+++</td> <td align="left">+++</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgA</td> <td align="left">+</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="left">IgM</td> <td align="left">+</td> <td align="left">&mdash;</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="borderbttm">&nbsp;</td> <td class="borderbttm" align="left">IgE</td> <td class="borderbttm" align="left">+</td> <td class="borderbttm" align="left">&mdash;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="caption">&mdash;, No binding; +, weak binding; ++, moderate binding; +++, strong binding.<br /> * Data obtained from Handbook of Affinity Chromatography by David<br /> S. Hage (ISBN 0824740572). Chapter 14 "Affinity Chromatography in<br /> Antibody and Antigen Purification" by Terry M. Phillips.</p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> Protein A and G Binding and Elution <p>The binding of antibodies to protein A is mediated, at neutral or alkaline pH values, through hydrophobic interactions involving a highly conserved histidine residue located in the protein A binding site of IgG. The elution of IgG from immobilized protein A is commonly achieved by lowering the pH using an acidic buffer. Protein A-purified antibodies are then typically neutralized with a base, dialyzed against a neutral buffer, or desalted using a gel-filtration column to avoid acid-mediated hydrolysis and denaturation.</p> <p>Protein G exhibits a higher binding affinity than Protein A. It binds optimally at acidic pH and, due to its higher binding affinity, requires harsher elution conditions, pH 3.0 or lower, which is inherently detrimental to the activity of the purified antibody. These effects can be minimized, though not entirely eliminated, through rapid neutralization of the collected fractions. The strength of the Protein G/IgG interaction can also result in IgG carry over. To avoid cross contamination, Protein G columns should be specific to the antibody being purified. Due to retained IgG, Protein G has a shorter column life due to the loss in binding capacity after a few purifications. (P. Gagnon, ISBN 0-9653515-9-9).</p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> References <p>Duhamel RC et al., pH gradient elution of human IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 from protein A-sepharose, J Immunol Methods 31(3&ndash;4), 211 (1979).</p> <p>Gagnon P (1996). Purification tools for monoclonal antibodies (Tucson: Validated Biosystems Inc).</p> <p>Hjelm H et al., ProteinA Staphylococcus aureus. Its isolation by affinity chromatography and its use as an immunosorbent for isolation of immunoglobulins, FEBS Lett 28(1), 73&ndash;76 (1972).</p> <p>Schwartz L (1990), In bacterial immunoglobulin-binding proteins, Vol. 2, M. Boyle, ed. (San Diego: Academic Press), p. 309.</p> <div class="top"><a href="#helptop">Back to Top</a></div> 5925 5712 Life Science Research/Products/Chromatography/Chromatography Media/Affinity Chromatography Media/Profinity IMAC Resins ->MT::e54ab03c-d281-4e6b-aa0d-193b7737626d##Life Science Research/Products/Chromatography/Affinity Chromatography and Tag Cleavage Kit Products/Profinia Protein Purification System Kits and Reagents/Profinia GST Kits ->MT::6ab42e5f-871c-4d64-8bec-ff20c7615ccf##Life Science Research/Products/Chromatography/Affinity Chromatography and Tag Cleavage Kit Products/Profinity eXact Fusion-Tag System/Profinity eXact Purification and Fusion-Tag Cleavage Consumables ->MT::146effdf-4529-4b08-8b01-8df71240693a##Life Science Research/Products/Chromatography/Chromatography Media/Affinity Chromatography Media/Profinity Epoxide Resin ->MT::32ed3466-dc81-4704-8e2c-8ce9c346747b## Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Automated Electrophoresis System -Experion- ->MTS::LUSR04KG4##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Protein Electrophoresis ->MTS::LUSOVO47B##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Western Blotting ->MTS::LUSPPAKG4##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Imaging and Analysis ->MTS::LUSQC6MNI##Life Science Research/Solutions/Technologies/Surface Plasmon Resonance ->MTS::LUSM664EH## Karen Moss 12/29/11 05:08 PM 12/29/21 05:25 PM AE,AI,AL,AM,AR,AT,AU,AZ,BA,BD,BE,BF,BG,BH,BN,BO,BR,BW,CA,CH,CL,CM,CN,CO,CR,CY,CZ,DE,DK,DO,DZ,EC,EE,EG,EH,ER,ES,ET,FI,FM,FO,FR,GA,GE,GF,GH,GP,GR,GT,GU,HK,HN,HR,HT,HU,ID,IE,IL,IN,IS,IT,JM,JO,JP,KE,KH,KR,KW,KZ,LB,LI,LK,LT,LU,LV,MA,MD,MG,MK,ML,MO,MQ,MS,MT,MU,MX,MY,NG,NI,NL,NO,NP,NZ,OM,PA,PE,PF,PG,PH,PK,PL,PR,PS,PT,PW,PY,QA,RO,RS,RU,SA,SB,SE,SG,SI,SK,SN,ST,SV,TG,TH,TN,TO,TR,TT,TW,TZ,UA,UG,UK,US,UY,UZ,VA,VE,VU,XK,YE,ZA,VN en LSR /LSR/Technologies/Chromatography N 0
Sign Up for Bio-Rad Updates!
Enter your email address below to receive your choice of the latest news, promotions, and more.
LUSMML97Q [x-forwarded-proto] = [http] [accept-language] = [en-US,en;q=0.5] [x-forwarded-port] = [80] [x-forwarded-for] = [54.234.208.87, 10.232.2.164] [accept] = [text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8] [seourl] = [/en-de/applications-technologies/protein-g-affinity] [x-amzn-trace-id] = [Root=1-5d12143f-40260e288e2216b0203c80a4] [x-forwarded-server] = [lsds-prod-s.br.aws-livesite.io] [x-forwarded-host] = [www.bio-rad.com] [x-query-string] = [ID=LUSMML97Q] [host] = [10.232.0.21:1776] [x-request-uri] = [/en-de/applications-technologies/protein-g-affinity] [connection] = [Keep-Alive] [accept-encoding] = [gzip] [user-agent] = [CCBot/2.0 (https://commoncrawl.org/faq/)] AppTech/AppTechDetails pageStyleKey applications-technologies/protein-g-affinity LSR 11/26/13 02:09 PM en_US true internet/generic 2018-07-20 22:56:17 /default/main/bio-rad/STAGING 1385503790256 UK,AT,BE,BG,HR,CZ,CY,DK,EE,FI,FR,DE,GR,HU,IE,IT,LV,LT,LU,MT,NL,PL,PT,RO,SK,SI,ES,SE templatedata/internet/generic/data/GNL/page_generic_footer_b2c_1385503901_UK.xml page_generic_footer_b2c /default/main/bio-rad/WORKAREA/default jcc1tp9j 2017-10-27 13:13:51 true jcc1tp9j templatedata/internet/generic/data/GNL/page_generic_footer_b2c_1385503901_UK.xml GNL N /default/main/bio-rad en 11/27/23 02:11 PM 1530035376581 2018-07-20 22:56:17 /default/main/bio-rad/WORKAREA/default/templatedata/internet/generic/data/GNL/page_generic_footer_b2c_1385503901_UK.xml footer-page 1 1385503790256 page_generic_footer_b2c <div class="links"> <h4>Support</h4> <ul> <li><a class="msdsLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/literature-library">MSDS</a></li> <li><a class="cofaLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/life-science-research/support/certificate-of-analysis">Certificate of Analysis</a></li> <li><a class="qcinsertsLink wtclass" href="http://myeinserts.qcnet.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">QC Inserts</a></li> <li><a class="expertCSLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/life-science-research/purchase-service-programs/expert-care-service">Expert Care Service</a></li> <li><a class="feedBackLink wtclass" href="javascript:openAjaxOverlay('/bio-rad/Standalone/FeedbackOverlay.page?standalonePage=true','Feedback')">Feedback</a></li> <li><a class="contactUSLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/contact-us">Contact Us</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="links"> <h4>Ordering</h4> <ul> <li><a id="quickOrderLink" class="quickOrderLink wtclass" name="quickOrderLink" href="javascript:openAjaxOverlay('/evportal/portlets/ordering/quickOrderOverlayContent.jsp?quickorder_location=Footer')">Quick Order</a></li> <li><a class="mybioradLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/my-bio-rad">My Bio-Rad</a></li> <li><a id="footer_orderLink" class="orderhistoryLink wtclass" href="javascript:void(0);">Order History</a></li> <li><a id="footer_quoteLink" href="javascript:void(0);">Quote History</a></li> <li><a class="supplycentersLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="/_locale/_defaultVerticalUrl/purchase-service-programs/supply-centre-programme">Supply Centres</a></li> <li><a class="returnpolicyLink wtclass linkgeneration" href="javascript:openAjaxOverlay('/webroot/web/html/returnPolicy-en-EM.html','Return and Refund Policy');">Return and Refund Policy</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="links"> <h4>Our Products</h4> <ul> <li><a class="lsrLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/life-science-research">Life Science Research</a></li> <li><a class="cdLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/clinical-diagnostics">Clinical Diagnostics</a></li> <li><a class="infLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/spectroscopy">Spectroscopy</a></li> <li><a class="psLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/process-separations">Process Separations</a></li> <li><a class="fsLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/food-science">Food Science</a></li> <li><a class="lseLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/education">Life Science Education</a></li> <li><a class="selectionguideLink wtclass" href="/featured/en/selection-guides.html">Selection Guides</a></li> <li><a class="featuredproductsLink wtclass" href="/featured/en/featured-products.html">Featured Products</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="links links2"> <h4>Corporate</h4> <ul> <li><a class="aboutbioradLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/corporate/about-bio-rad">About Bio-Rad</a></li> <li><a class="careersLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/corporate/careers">Careers</a></li> <li><a class="irLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/corporate/investor-relations">Investor Relations</a></li> <li><a class="coLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/corporate/community-outreach">Community Outreach</a></li> <li><a class="pteLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/corporate/protecting-environment">Protecting the Environment</a></li> <li><a class="newsroomLink wtclass" href="/en-uk/corporate/newsroom">Newsroom</a></li> </ul> </div> /webroot/web/html footer_page_b2c_en_UK.html /webroot/web/html/footer_page_b2c_en_UK.html Karen Moss Footer page Footer 11/26/13 02:09 PM 11/27/23 02:11 PM UK,AT,BE,BG,HR,CZ,CY,DK,EE,FI,FR,DE,GR,HU,IE,IT,LV,LT,LU,MT,NL,PL,PT,RO,SK,SI,ES,SE en GNL /GNL N 0 en-de Home Trademarks Site Terms Terms & Conditions Imprint EU Recycle Program Privacy Change Cookie Setting <script type="text/javascript">$(document).ready(function () {$(".links2").append('<style>.social-links-br {float: left;margin-right: 10px;}.social-links-br img {width: 20px;height: 20px;margin-right: 5px}</style><div class="social-links-br"><a class="no-target-style" href="https://www.linkedin.com/company/bio-rad?trk=top_nav_home" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/linkedin_round_40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad LinkedIn"></a><a class="no-target-style" href="https://www.youtube.com/user/BioRadLifeScience" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/youtube-icon-rnd-40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad YouTube"></a><a class="no-target-style" href="https://twitter.com/BioRadLifeSci" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/twitter_round_40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad Twitter"></a><a class="no-target-style" href="https://www.facebook.com/biorad/" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/facebook-icon-rnd-40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad Facebook"></a><a class="no-target-style" href="https://www.instagram.com/bioradlabs/" target="_blank"><img src="/webroot/web/images/general/icons/instagram-icon-rnd-40x40.png" alt="Bio-Rad Instagram"></a></div>');});</script>Copyright &copy; {0} Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. This page was last edited on {0} true true true true True GTM-MJ2DN2S de DE en LSR life-science-research life-science-research /prd/en/DE/direct/biorad?ts=1&cmd=OrdersWorkspaceDisplay /prd/en/DE/direct/biorad?ts=1&cmd=QuotesWorkspaceDisplay /prd/en/DE/direct/biorad?ts=1&cmd=InvoiceWorkspaceDisplay&_Tab=Invoice false false true false true true 1040988879 LHsYCOu_wQMQz_Ww8AM window.google_tag_params true 272-THL-329 username CartID_ WT_FPC <script type="text/javascript">$.ajax({url: document.location.protocol + '//munchkin.marketo.net/munchkin.js',dataType: 'script',cache: true,success: function() {Munchkin.init('044-CBN-599');}});</script> <script type="text/javascript" src="/evportal/framework/skins/evolution/js/proxyMunchkin.js"></script> 2019
To give you the very best experience, the cookie settings on Bio-Rad.com are set to "allow all cookies". To change your settings please click  here.  Close